[docs] Consistent use of `e.g.` (#4643)

Authored by: Lesmiscore
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  1. 4
      CONTRIBUTING.md
  2. 6
      Changelog.md
  3. 137
      README.md
  4. 2
      supportedsites.md
  5. 12
      yt_dlp/YoutubeDL.py
  6. 2
      yt_dlp/downloader/f4m.py
  7. 2
      yt_dlp/extractor/abematv.py
  8. 20
      yt_dlp/extractor/common.py
  9. 2
      yt_dlp/extractor/generic.py
  10. 2
      yt_dlp/extractor/openload.py
  11. 6
      yt_dlp/extractor/youtube.py
  12. 2
      yt_dlp/minicurses.py
  13. 54
      yt_dlp/options.py
  14. 6
      yt_dlp/utils.py

@ -195,7 +195,7 @@ After you have ensured this site is distributing its content legally, you can fo
# * A value
# * MD5 checksum; start the string with md5:
# * A regular expression; start the string with re:
# * Any Python type (for example int or float)
# * Any Python type, e.g. int or float
}
}]
@ -261,7 +261,7 @@ The aforementioned metafields are the critical data that the extraction does not
For pornographic sites, appropriate `age_limit` must also be returned.
The extractor is allowed to return the info dict without url or formats in some special cases if it allows the user to extract usefull information with `--ignore-no-formats-error` - Eg: when the video is a live stream that has not started yet.
The extractor is allowed to return the info dict without url or formats in some special cases if it allows the user to extract usefull information with `--ignore-no-formats-error` - e.g. when the video is a live stream that has not started yet.
[Any field](yt_dlp/extractor/common.py#219-L426) apart from the aforementioned ones are considered **optional**. That means that extraction should be **tolerant** to situations when sources for these fields can potentially be unavailable (even if they are always available at the moment) and **future-proof** in order not to break the extraction of general purpose mandatory fields.

@ -211,7 +211,7 @@
* [**Deprecate support for Python 3.6**](https://github.com/yt-dlp/yt-dlp/issues/3764#issuecomment-1154051119)
* **Add option `--download-sections` to download video partially**
* Chapter regex and time ranges are accepted (Eg: `--download-sections *1:10-2:20`)
* Chapter regex and time ranges are accepted, e.g. `--download-sections *1:10-2:20`
* Add option `--alias`
* Add option `--lazy-playlist` to process entries as they are received
* Add option `--retry-sleep`
@ -1375,7 +1375,7 @@
* Add new option `--netrc-location`
* [outtmpl] Allow alternate fields using `,`
* [outtmpl] Add format type `B` to treat the value as bytes (eg: to limit the filename to a certain number of bytes)
* [outtmpl] Add format type `B` to treat the value as bytes, e.g. to limit the filename to a certain number of bytes
* Separate the options `--ignore-errors` and `--no-abort-on-error`
* Basic framework for simultaneous download of multiple formats by [nao20010128nao](https://github.com/nao20010128nao)
* [17live] Add 17.live extractor by [nao20010128nao](https://github.com/nao20010128nao)
@ -1765,7 +1765,7 @@
* Merge youtube-dl: Upto [commit/a803582](https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/commit/a8035827177d6b59aca03bd717acb6a9bdd75ada)
* Add `--extractor-args` to pass some extractor-specific arguments. See [readme](https://github.com/yt-dlp/yt-dlp#extractor-arguments)
* Add extractor option `skip` for `youtube`. Eg: `--extractor-args youtube:skip=hls,dash`
* Add extractor option `skip` for `youtube`, e.g. `--extractor-args youtube:skip=hls,dash`
* Deprecates `--youtube-skip-dash-manifest`, `--youtube-skip-hls-manifest`, `--youtube-include-dash-manifest`, `--youtube-include-hls-manifest`
* Allow `--list...` options to work with `--print`, `--quiet` and other `--list...` options
* [youtube] Use `player` API for additional video extraction requests by [coletdjnz](https://github.com/coletdjnz)

@ -376,7 +376,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
--extractor-descriptions Output descriptions of all supported
extractors and exit
--force-generic-extractor Force extraction to use the generic extractor
--default-search PREFIX Use this prefix for unqualified URLs. Eg:
--default-search PREFIX Use this prefix for unqualified URLs. E.g.
"gvsearch2:python" downloads two videos from
google videos for the search term "python".
Use the value "auto" to let yt-dlp guess
@ -425,7 +425,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
an alias starts with a dash "-", it is
prefixed with "--". Arguments are parsed
according to the Python string formatting
mini-language. Eg: --alias get-audio,-X
mini-language. E.g. --alias get-audio,-X
"-S=aext:{0},abr -x --audio-format {0}"
creates options "--get-audio" and "-X" that
takes an argument (ARG0) and expands to
@ -439,10 +439,10 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
## Network Options:
--proxy URL Use the specified HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS proxy. To
enable SOCKS proxy, specify a proper scheme.
Eg: socks5://user:pass@127.0.0.1:1080/. Pass
in an empty string (--proxy "") for direct
connection
enable SOCKS proxy, specify a proper scheme,
e.g. socks5://user:pass@127.0.0.1:1080/.
Pass in an empty string (--proxy "") for
direct connection
--socket-timeout SECONDS Time to wait before giving up, in seconds
--source-address IP Client-side IP address to bind to
-4, --force-ipv4 Make all connections via IPv4
@ -471,17 +471,17 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
compatibility, START-STOP is also supported.
Use negative indices to count from the right
and negative STEP to download in reverse
order. Eg: "-I 1:3,7,-5::2" used on a
order. E.g. "-I 1:3,7,-5::2" used on a
playlist of size 15 will download the videos
at index 1,2,3,7,11,13,15
--min-filesize SIZE Do not download any videos smaller than SIZE
(e.g. 50k or 44.6m)
--max-filesize SIZE Do not download any videos larger than SIZE
(e.g. 50k or 44.6m)
--min-filesize SIZE Do not download any videos smaller than
SIZE, e.g. 50k or 44.6M
--max-filesize SIZE Do not download any videos larger than SIZE,
e.g. 50k or 44.6M
--date DATE Download only videos uploaded on this date.
The date can be "YYYYMMDD" or in the format
[now|today|yesterday][-N[day|week|month|year]].
Eg: --date today-2weeks
E.g. --date today-2weeks
--datebefore DATE Download only videos uploaded on or before
this date. The date formats accepted is the
same as --date
@ -498,7 +498,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
conditions. Use a "\" to escape "&" or
quotes if needed. If used multiple times,
the filter matches if atleast one of the
conditions are met. Eg: --match-filter
conditions are met. E.g. --match-filter
!is_live --match-filter "like_count>?100 &
description~='(?i)\bcats \& dogs\b'" matches
only videos that are not live OR those that
@ -536,11 +536,11 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
-N, --concurrent-fragments N Number of fragments of a dash/hlsnative
video that should be downloaded concurrently
(default is 1)
-r, --limit-rate RATE Maximum download rate in bytes per second
(e.g. 50K or 4.2M)
-r, --limit-rate RATE Maximum download rate in bytes per second,
e.g. 50K or 4.2M
--throttled-rate RATE Minimum download rate in bytes per second
below which throttling is assumed and the
video data is re-extracted (e.g. 100K)
video data is re-extracted, e.g. 100K
-R, --retries RETRIES Number of retries (default is 10), or
"infinite"
--file-access-retries RETRIES Number of times to retry on file access
@ -554,7 +554,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
be a number, linear=START[:END[:STEP=1]] or
exp=START[:END[:BASE=2]]. This option can be
used multiple times to set the sleep for the
different retry types. Eg: --retry-sleep
different retry types, e.g. --retry-sleep
linear=1::2 --retry-sleep fragment:exp=1:20
--skip-unavailable-fragments Skip unavailable fragments for DASH,
hlsnative and ISM downloads (default)
@ -566,14 +566,14 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
downloading is finished
--no-keep-fragments Delete downloaded fragments after
downloading is finished (default)
--buffer-size SIZE Size of download buffer (e.g. 1024 or 16K)
--buffer-size SIZE Size of download buffer, e.g. 1024 or 16K
(default is 1024)
--resize-buffer The buffer size is automatically resized
from an initial value of --buffer-size
(default)
--no-resize-buffer Do not automatically adjust the buffer size
--http-chunk-size SIZE Size of a chunk for chunk-based HTTP
downloading (e.g. 10485760 or 10M) (default
downloading, e.g. 10485760 or 10M (default
is disabled). May be useful for bypassing
bandwidth throttling imposed by a webserver
(experimental)
@ -598,10 +598,10 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
the given regular expression. Time ranges
prefixed by a "*" can also be used in place
of chapters to download the specified range.
Eg: --download-sections "*10:15-15:00"
--download-sections "intro". Needs ffmpeg.
This option can be used multiple times to
download multiple sections
Needs ffmpeg. This option can be used
multiple times to download multiple
sections, e.g. --download-sections
"*10:15-15:00" --download-sections "intro"
--downloader [PROTO:]NAME Name or path of the external downloader to
use (optionally) prefixed by the protocols
(http, ftp, m3u8, dash, rstp, rtmp, mms) to
@ -609,7 +609,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
aria2c, avconv, axel, curl, ffmpeg, httpie,
wget. You can use this option multiple times
to set different downloaders for different
protocols. For example, --downloader aria2c
protocols. E.g. --downloader aria2c
--downloader "dash,m3u8:native" will use
aria2c for http/ftp downloads, and the
native downloader for dash/m3u8 downloads
@ -791,7 +791,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
"postprocess:", or "postprocess-title:".
The video's fields are accessible under the
"info" key and the progress attributes are
accessible under "progress" key. E.g.:
accessible under "progress" key. E.g.
--console-title --progress-template
"download-title:%(info.id)s-%(progress.eta)s"
-v, --verbose Print various debugging information
@ -860,7 +860,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
-F, --list-formats List available formats of each video.
Simulate unless --no-simulate is used
--merge-output-format FORMAT Containers that may be used when merging
formats, separated by "/" (Eg: "mp4/mkv").
formats, separated by "/", e.g. "mp4/mkv".
Ignored if no merge is required. (currently
supported: avi, flv, mkv, mov, mp4, webm)
@ -874,13 +874,13 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
--list-subs List available subtitles of each video.
Simulate unless --no-simulate is used
--sub-format FORMAT Subtitle format; accepts formats preference,
Eg: "srt" or "ass/srt/best"
e.g. "srt" or "ass/srt/best"
--sub-langs LANGS Languages of the subtitles to download (can
be regex) or "all" separated by commas. (Eg:
--sub-langs "en.*,ja") You can prefix the
be regex) or "all" separated by commas, e.g.
--sub-langs "en.*,ja". You can prefix the
language code with a "-" to exclude it from
the requested languages. (Eg: --sub-langs
all,-live_chat) Use --list-subs for a list
the requested languages, e.g. --sub-langs
all,-live_chat. Use --list-subs for a list
of available language tags
## Authentication Options:
@ -929,7 +929,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
m4a, mka, mp3, ogg, opus, vorbis, wav). If
target container does not support the
video/audio codec, remuxing will fail. You
can specify multiple rules; Eg.
can specify multiple rules; e.g.
"aac>m4a/mov>mp4/mkv" will remux aac to m4a,
mov to mp4 and anything else to mkv
--recode-video FORMAT Re-encode the video into another format if
@ -954,7 +954,7 @@ You can also fork the project on github and run your fork's [build workflow](.gi
for ffmpeg/ffprobe, "_i"/"_o" can be
appended to the prefix optionally followed
by a number to pass the argument before the
specified input/output file. Eg: --ppa
specified input/output file, e.g. --ppa
"Merger+ffmpeg_i1:-v quiet". You can use
this option multiple times to give different
arguments to different postprocessors.
@ -1081,7 +1081,7 @@ Make chapter entries for, or remove various segments (sponsor,
music_offtopic, poi_highlight, all and
default (=all). You can prefix the category
with a "-" to exclude it. See [1] for
description of the categories. Eg:
description of the categories. E.g.
--sponsorblock-mark all,-preview
[1] https://wiki.sponsor.ajay.app/w/Segment_Categories
--sponsorblock-remove CATS SponsorBlock categories to be removed from
@ -1140,7 +1140,7 @@ You can configure yt-dlp by placing any supported command line option to a confi
1. **System Configuration**: `/etc/yt-dlp.conf`
For example, with the following configuration file yt-dlp will always extract the audio, not copy the mtime, use a proxy and save all videos under `YouTube` directory in your home directory:
E.g. with the following configuration file yt-dlp will always extract the audio, not copy the mtime, use a proxy and save all videos under `YouTube` directory in your home directory:
```
# Lines starting with # are comments
@ -1178,7 +1178,7 @@ After that you can add credentials for an extractor in the following format, whe
```
machine <extractor> login <username> password <password>
```
For example:
E.g.
```
machine youtube login myaccount@gmail.com password my_youtube_password
machine twitch login my_twitch_account_name password my_twitch_password
@ -1197,32 +1197,32 @@ The `-o` option is used to indicate a template for the output file names while `
The simplest usage of `-o` is not to set any template arguments when downloading a single file, like in `yt-dlp -o funny_video.flv "https://some/video"` (hard-coding file extension like this is _not_ recommended and could break some post-processing).
It may however also contain special sequences that will be replaced when downloading each video. The special sequences may be formatted according to [Python string formatting operations](https://docs.python.org/3/library/stdtypes.html#printf-style-string-formatting). For example, `%(NAME)s` or `%(NAME)05d`. To clarify, that is a percent symbol followed by a name in parentheses, followed by formatting operations.
It may however also contain special sequences that will be replaced when downloading each video. The special sequences may be formatted according to [Python string formatting operations](https://docs.python.org/3/library/stdtypes.html#printf-style-string-formatting), e.g. `%(NAME)s` or `%(NAME)05d`. To clarify, that is a percent symbol followed by a name in parentheses, followed by formatting operations.
The field names themselves (the part inside the parenthesis) can also have some special formatting:
1. **Object traversal**: The dictionaries and lists available in metadata can be traversed by using a `.` (dot) separator. You can also do python slicing using `:`. Eg: `%(tags.0)s`, `%(subtitles.en.-1.ext)s`, `%(id.3:7:-1)s`, `%(formats.:.format_id)s`. `%()s` refers to the entire infodict. Note that all the fields that become available using this method are not listed below. Use `-j` to see such fields
1. **Object traversal**: The dictionaries and lists available in metadata can be traversed by using a `.` (dot) separator. You can also do python slicing using `:`. E.g. `%(tags.0)s`, `%(subtitles.en.-1.ext)s`, `%(id.3:7:-1)s`, `%(formats.:.format_id)s`. `%()s` refers to the entire infodict. Note that all the fields that become available using this method are not listed below. Use `-j` to see such fields
1. **Addition**: Addition and subtraction of numeric fields can be done using `+` and `-` respectively. Eg: `%(playlist_index+10)03d`, `%(n_entries+1-playlist_index)d`
1. **Addition**: Addition and subtraction of numeric fields can be done using `+` and `-` respectively. E.g. `%(playlist_index+10)03d`, `%(n_entries+1-playlist_index)d`
1. **Date/time Formatting**: Date/time fields can be formatted according to [strftime formatting](https://docs.python.org/3/library/datetime.html#strftime-and-strptime-format-codes) by specifying it separated from the field name using a `>`. Eg: `%(duration>%H-%M-%S)s`, `%(upload_date>%Y-%m-%d)s`, `%(epoch-3600>%H-%M-%S)s`
1. **Date/time Formatting**: Date/time fields can be formatted according to [strftime formatting](https://docs.python.org/3/library/datetime.html#strftime-and-strptime-format-codes) by specifying it separated from the field name using a `>`. E.g. `%(duration>%H-%M-%S)s`, `%(upload_date>%Y-%m-%d)s`, `%(epoch-3600>%H-%M-%S)s`
1. **Alternatives**: Alternate fields can be specified separated with a `,`. Eg: `%(release_date>%Y,upload_date>%Y|Unknown)s`
1. **Alternatives**: Alternate fields can be specified separated with a `,`. E.g. `%(release_date>%Y,upload_date>%Y|Unknown)s`
1. **Replacement**: A replacement value can specified using a `&` separator. If the field is *not* empty, this replacement value will be used instead of the actual field content. This is done after alternate fields are considered; thus the replacement is used if *any* of the alternative fields is *not* empty.
1. **Default**: A literal default value can be specified for when the field is empty using a `|` separator. This overrides `--output-na-template`. Eg: `%(uploader|Unknown)s`
1. **Default**: A literal default value can be specified for when the field is empty using a `|` separator. This overrides `--output-na-template`. E.g. `%(uploader|Unknown)s`
1. **More Conversions**: In addition to the normal format types `diouxXeEfFgGcrs`, yt-dlp additionally supports converting to `B` = **B**ytes, `j` = **j**son (flag `#` for pretty-printing), `h` = HTML escaping, `l` = a comma separated **l**ist (flag `#` for `\n` newline-separated), `q` = a string **q**uoted for the terminal (flag `#` to split a list into different arguments), `D` = add **D**ecimal suffixes (Eg: 10M) (flag `#` to use 1024 as factor), and `S` = **S**anitize as filename (flag `#` for restricted)
1. **More Conversions**: In addition to the normal format types `diouxXeEfFgGcrs`, yt-dlp additionally supports converting to `B` = **B**ytes, `j` = **j**son (flag `#` for pretty-printing), `h` = HTML escaping, `l` = a comma separated **l**ist (flag `#` for `\n` newline-separated), `q` = a string **q**uoted for the terminal (flag `#` to split a list into different arguments), `D` = add **D**ecimal suffixes (e.g. 10M) (flag `#` to use 1024 as factor), and `S` = **S**anitize as filename (flag `#` for restricted)
1. **Unicode normalization**: The format type `U` can be used for NFC [unicode normalization](https://docs.python.org/3/library/unicodedata.html#unicodedata.normalize). The alternate form flag (`#`) changes the normalization to NFD and the conversion flag `+` can be used for NFKC/NFKD compatibility equivalence normalization. Eg: `%(title)+.100U` is NFKC
1. **Unicode normalization**: The format type `U` can be used for NFC [unicode normalization](https://docs.python.org/3/library/unicodedata.html#unicodedata.normalize). The alternate form flag (`#`) changes the normalization to NFD and the conversion flag `+` can be used for NFKC/NFKD compatibility equivalence normalization. E.g. `%(title)+.100U` is NFKC
To summarize, the general syntax for a field is:
```
%(name[.keys][addition][>strf][,alternate][&replacement][|default])[flags][width][.precision][length]type
```
Additionally, you can set different output templates for the various metadata files separately from the general output template by specifying the type of file followed by the template separated by a colon `:`. The different file types supported are `subtitle`, `thumbnail`, `description`, `annotation` (deprecated), `infojson`, `link`, `pl_thumbnail`, `pl_description`, `pl_infojson`, `chapter`, `pl_video`. For example, `-o "%(title)s.%(ext)s" -o "thumbnail:%(title)s\%(title)s.%(ext)s"` will put the thumbnails in a folder with the same name as the video. If any of the templates is empty, that type of file will not be written. Eg: `--write-thumbnail -o "thumbnail:"` will write thumbnails only for playlists and not for video.
Additionally, you can set different output templates for the various metadata files separately from the general output template by specifying the type of file followed by the template separated by a colon `:`. The different file types supported are `subtitle`, `thumbnail`, `description`, `annotation` (deprecated), `infojson`, `link`, `pl_thumbnail`, `pl_description`, `pl_infojson`, `chapter`, `pl_video`. E.g. `-o "%(title)s.%(ext)s" -o "thumbnail:%(title)s\%(title)s.%(ext)s"` will put the thumbnails in a folder with the same name as the video. If any of the templates is empty, that type of file will not be written. E.g. `--write-thumbnail -o "thumbnail:"` will write thumbnails only for playlists and not for video.
The available fields are:
@ -1358,13 +1358,13 @@ Available only in `--sponsorblock-chapter-title`:
- `category_names` (list): Friendly names of the categories
- `name` (string): Friendly name of the smallest category
Each aforementioned sequence when referenced in an output template will be replaced by the actual value corresponding to the sequence name. For example for `-o %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s` and an mp4 video with title `yt-dlp test video` and id `BaW_jenozKc`, this will result in a `yt-dlp test video-BaW_jenozKc.mp4` file created in the current directory.
Each aforementioned sequence when referenced in an output template will be replaced by the actual value corresponding to the sequence name. E.g. for `-o %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s` and an mp4 video with title `yt-dlp test video` and id `BaW_jenozKc`, this will result in a `yt-dlp test video-BaW_jenozKc.mp4` file created in the current directory.
Note that some of the sequences are not guaranteed to be present since they depend on the metadata obtained by a particular extractor. Such sequences will be replaced with placeholder value provided with `--output-na-placeholder` (`NA` by default).
**Tip**: Look at the `-j` output to identify which fields are available for the particular URL
For numeric sequences you can use [numeric related formatting](https://docs.python.org/3/library/stdtypes.html#printf-style-string-formatting), for example, `%(view_count)05d` will result in a string with view count padded with zeros up to 5 characters, like in `00042`.
For numeric sequences you can use [numeric related formatting](https://docs.python.org/3/library/stdtypes.html#printf-style-string-formatting); e.g. `%(view_count)05d` will result in a string with view count padded with zeros up to 5 characters, like in `00042`.
Output templates can also contain arbitrary hierarchical path, e.g. `-o "%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s"` which will result in downloading each video in a directory corresponding to this path template. Any missing directory will be automatically created for you.
@ -1434,7 +1434,7 @@ The general syntax for format selection is `-f FORMAT` (or `--format FORMAT`) wh
**tl;dr:** [navigate me to examples](#format-selection-examples).
<!-- MANPAGE: END EXCLUDED SECTION -->
The simplest case is requesting a specific format, for example with `-f 22` you can download the format with format code equal to 22. You can get the list of available format codes for particular video using `--list-formats` or `-F`. Note that these format codes are extractor specific.
The simplest case is requesting a specific format; e.g. with `-f 22` you can download the format with format code equal to 22. You can get the list of available format codes for particular video using `--list-formats` or `-F`. Note that these format codes are extractor specific.
You can also use a file extension (currently `3gp`, `aac`, `flv`, `m4a`, `mp3`, `mp4`, `ogg`, `wav`, `webm` are supported) to download the best quality format of a particular file extension served as a single file, e.g. `-f webm` will download the best quality format with the `webm` extension served as a single file.
@ -1461,15 +1461,15 @@ For example, to download the worst quality video-only format you can use `-f wor
You can select the n'th best format of a type by using `best<type>.<n>`. For example, `best.2` will select the 2nd best combined format. Similarly, `bv*.3` will select the 3rd best format that contains a video stream.
If you want to download multiple videos and they don't have the same formats available, you can specify the order of preference using slashes. Note that formats on the left hand side are preferred, for example `-f 22/17/18` will download format 22 if it's available, otherwise it will download format 17 if it's available, otherwise it will download format 18 if it's available, otherwise it will complain that no suitable formats are available for download.
If you want to download multiple videos and they don't have the same formats available, you can specify the order of preference using slashes. Note that formats on the left hand side are preferred; e.g. `-f 22/17/18` will download format 22 if it's available, otherwise it will download format 17 if it's available, otherwise it will download format 18 if it's available, otherwise it will complain that no suitable formats are available for download.
If you want to download several formats of the same video use a comma as a separator, e.g. `-f 22,17,18` will download all these three formats, of course if they are available. Or a more sophisticated example combined with the precedence feature: `-f 136/137/mp4/bestvideo,140/m4a/bestaudio`.
You can merge the video and audio of multiple formats into a single file using `-f <format1>+<format2>+...` (requires ffmpeg installed), for example `-f bestvideo+bestaudio` will download the best video-only format, the best audio-only format and mux them together with ffmpeg.
You can merge the video and audio of multiple formats into a single file using `-f <format1>+<format2>+...` (requires ffmpeg installed); e.g. `-f bestvideo+bestaudio` will download the best video-only format, the best audio-only format and mux them together with ffmpeg.
**Deprecation warning**: Since the *below* described behavior is complex and counter-intuitive, this will be removed and multistreams will be enabled by default in the future. A new operator will be instead added to limit formats to single audio/video
Unless `--video-multistreams` is used, all formats with a video stream except the first one are ignored. Similarly, unless `--audio-multistreams` is used, all formats with an audio stream except the first one are ignored. For example, `-f bestvideo+best+bestaudio --video-multistreams --audio-multistreams` will download and merge all 3 given formats. The resulting file will have 2 video streams and 2 audio streams. But `-f bestvideo+best+bestaudio --no-video-multistreams` will download and merge only `bestvideo` and `bestaudio`. `best` is ignored since another format containing a video stream (`bestvideo`) has already been selected. The order of the formats is therefore important. `-f best+bestaudio --no-audio-multistreams` will download and merge both formats while `-f bestaudio+best --no-audio-multistreams` will ignore `best` and download only `bestaudio`.
Unless `--video-multistreams` is used, all formats with a video stream except the first one are ignored. Similarly, unless `--audio-multistreams` is used, all formats with an audio stream except the first one are ignored. E.g. `-f bestvideo+best+bestaudio --video-multistreams --audio-multistreams` will download and merge all 3 given formats. The resulting file will have 2 video streams and 2 audio streams. But `-f bestvideo+best+bestaudio --no-video-multistreams` will download and merge only `bestvideo` and `bestaudio`. `best` is ignored since another format containing a video stream (`bestvideo`) has already been selected. The order of the formats is therefore important. `-f best+bestaudio --no-audio-multistreams` will download and merge both formats while `-f bestaudio+best --no-audio-multistreams` will ignore `best` and download only `bestaudio`.
## Filtering Formats
@ -1500,9 +1500,9 @@ Any string comparison may be prefixed with negation `!` in order to produce an o
Note that none of the aforementioned meta fields are guaranteed to be present since this solely depends on the metadata obtained by particular extractor, i.e. the metadata offered by the website. Any other field made available by the extractor can also be used for filtering.
Formats for which the value is not known are excluded unless you put a question mark (`?`) after the operator. You can combine format filters, so `-f "[height<=?720][tbr>500]"` selects up to 720p videos (or videos where the height is not known) with a bitrate of at least 500 KBit/s. You can also use the filters with `all` to download all formats that satisfy the filter. For example, `-f "all[vcodec=none]"` selects all audio-only formats.
Formats for which the value is not known are excluded unless you put a question mark (`?`) after the operator. You can combine format filters, so `-f "[height<=?720][tbr>500]"` selects up to 720p videos (or videos where the height is not known) with a bitrate of at least 500 KBit/s. You can also use the filters with `all` to download all formats that satisfy the filter, e.g. `-f "all[vcodec=none]"` selects all audio-only formats.
Format selectors can also be grouped using parentheses, for example if you want to download the best pre-merged mp4 and webm formats with a height lower than 480 you can use `-f "(mp4,webm)[height<480]"`.
Format selectors can also be grouped using parentheses; e.g. `-f "(mp4,webm)[height<480]"` will download the best pre-merged mp4 and webm formats with a height lower than 480.
## Sorting Formats
@ -1540,7 +1540,7 @@ The available fields are:
**Deprecation warning**: Many of these fields have (currently undocumented) aliases, that may be removed in a future version. It is recommended to use only the documented field names.
All fields, unless specified otherwise, are sorted in descending order. To reverse this, prefix the field with a `+`. Eg: `+res` prefers format with the smallest resolution. Additionally, you can suffix a preferred value for the fields, separated by a `:`. Eg: `res:720` prefers larger videos, but no larger than 720p and the smallest video if there are no videos less than 720p. For `codec` and `ext`, you can provide two preferred values, the first for video and the second for audio. Eg: `+codec:avc:m4a` (equivalent to `+vcodec:avc,+acodec:m4a`) sets the video codec preference to `h264` > `h265` > `vp9` > `vp9.2` > `av01` > `vp8` > `h263` > `theora` and audio codec preference to `mp4a` > `aac` > `vorbis` > `opus` > `mp3` > `ac3` > `dts`. You can also make the sorting prefer the nearest values to the provided by using `~` as the delimiter. Eg: `filesize~1G` prefers the format with filesize closest to 1 GiB.
All fields, unless specified otherwise, are sorted in descending order. To reverse this, prefix the field with a `+`. E.g. `+res` prefers format with the smallest resolution. Additionally, you can suffix a preferred value for the fields, separated by a `:`. E.g. `res:720` prefers larger videos, but no larger than 720p and the smallest video if there are no videos less than 720p. For `codec` and `ext`, you can provide two preferred values, the first for video and the second for audio. E.g. `+codec:avc:m4a` (equivalent to `+vcodec:avc,+acodec:m4a`) sets the video codec preference to `h264` > `h265` > `vp9` > `vp9.2` > `av01` > `vp8` > `h263` > `theora` and audio codec preference to `mp4a` > `aac` > `vorbis` > `opus` > `mp3` > `ac3` > `dts`. You can also make the sorting prefer the nearest values to the provided by using `~` as the delimiter. E.g. `filesize~1G` prefers the format with filesize closest to 1 GiB.
The fields `hasvid` and `ie_pref` are always given highest priority in sorting, irrespective of the user-defined order. This behaviour can be changed by using `--format-sort-force`. Apart from these, the default order used is: `lang,quality,res,fps,hdr:12,vcodec:vp9.2,channels,acodec,size,br,asr,proto,ext,hasaud,source,id`. The extractors may override this default order, but they cannot override the user-provided order.
@ -1685,9 +1685,9 @@ Note that any field created by this can be used in the [output template](#output
This option also has a few special uses:
* You can download an additional URL based on the metadata of the currently downloaded video. To do this, set the field `additional_urls` to the URL that you want to download. Eg: `--parse-metadata "description:(?P<additional_urls>https?://www\.vimeo\.com/\d+)` will download the first vimeo video found in the description
* You can download an additional URL based on the metadata of the currently downloaded video. To do this, set the field `additional_urls` to the URL that you want to download. E.g. `--parse-metadata "description:(?P<additional_urls>https?://www\.vimeo\.com/\d+)` will download the first vimeo video found in the description
* You can use this to change the metadata that is embedded in the media file. To do this, set the value of the corresponding field with a `meta_` prefix. For example, any value you set to `meta_description` field will be added to the `description` field in the file. For example, you can use this to set a different "description" and "synopsis". To modify the metadata of individual streams, use the `meta<n>_` prefix (Eg: `meta1_language`). Any value set to the `meta_` field will overwrite all default values.
* You can use this to change the metadata that is embedded in the media file. To do this, set the value of the corresponding field with a `meta_` prefix. For example, any value you set to `meta_description` field will be added to the `description` field in the file - you can use this to set a different "description" and "synopsis". To modify the metadata of individual streams, use the `meta<n>_` prefix (e.g. `meta1_language`). Any value set to the `meta_` field will overwrite all default values.
**Note**: Metadata modification happens before format selection, post-extraction and other post-processing operations. Some fields may be added or changed during these steps, overriding your changes.
@ -1746,20 +1746,20 @@ $ yt-dlp --replace-in-metadata "title,uploader" "[ _]" "-"
# EXTRACTOR ARGUMENTS
Some extractors accept additional arguments which can be passed using `--extractor-args KEY:ARGS`. `ARGS` is a `;` (semicolon) separated string of `ARG=VAL1,VAL2`. Eg: `--extractor-args "youtube:player-client=android_embedded,web;include_live_dash" --extractor-args "funimation:version=uncut"`
Some extractors accept additional arguments which can be passed using `--extractor-args KEY:ARGS`. `ARGS` is a `;` (semicolon) separated string of `ARG=VAL1,VAL2`. E.g. `--extractor-args "youtube:player-client=android_embedded,web;include_live_dash" --extractor-args "funimation:version=uncut"`
The following extractors use this feature:
#### youtube
* `skip`: One or more of `hls`, `dash` or `translated_subs` to skip extraction of the m3u8 manifests, dash manifests and [auto-translated subtitles](https://github.com/yt-dlp/yt-dlp/issues/4090#issuecomment-1158102032) respectively
* `player_client`: Clients to extract video data from. The main clients are `web`, `android` and `ios` with variants `_music`, `_embedded`, `_embedscreen`, `_creator` (Eg: `web_embedded`); and `mweb` and `tv_embedded` (agegate bypass) with no variants. By default, `android,web` is used, but `tv_embedded` and `creator` variants are added as required for age-gated videos. Similarly the music variants are added for `music.youtube.com` urls. You can use `all` to use all the clients, and `default` for the default clients.
* `player_client`: Clients to extract video data from. The main clients are `web`, `android` and `ios` with variants `_music`, `_embedded`, `_embedscreen`, `_creator` (e.g. `web_embedded`); and `mweb` and `tv_embedded` (agegate bypass) with no variants. By default, `android,web` is used, but `tv_embedded` and `creator` variants are added as required for age-gated videos. Similarly the music variants are added for `music.youtube.com` urls. You can use `all` to use all the clients, and `default` for the default clients.
* `player_skip`: Skip some network requests that are generally needed for robust extraction. One or more of `configs` (skip client configs), `webpage` (skip initial webpage), `js` (skip js player). While these options can help reduce the number of requests needed or avoid some rate-limiting, they could cause some issues. See [#860](https://github.com/yt-dlp/yt-dlp/pull/860) for more details
* `include_live_dash`: Include live dash formats even without `--live-from-start` (These formats don't download properly)
* `comment_sort`: `top` or `new` (default) - choose comment sorting mode (on YouTube's side)
* `max_comments`: Limit the amount of comments to gather. Comma-separated list of integers representing `max-comments,max-parents,max-replies,max-replies-per-thread`. Default is `all,all,all,all`
* E.g. `all,all,1000,10` will get a maximum of 1000 replies total, with up to 10 replies per thread. `1000,all,100` will get a maximum of 1000 comments, with a maximum of 100 replies total
* `innertube_host`: Innertube API host to use for all API requests
* e.g. `studio.youtube.com`, `youtubei.googleapis.com`
* E.g. `studio.youtube.com`, `youtubei.googleapis.com`
* Note: Cookies exported from `www.youtube.com` will not work with hosts other than `*.youtube.com`
* `innertube_key`: Innertube API key to use for all API requests
@ -1768,17 +1768,16 @@ The following extractors use this feature:
* `approximate_date`: Extract approximate `upload_date` in flat-playlist. This may cause date-based filters to be slightly off
#### funimation
* `language`: Languages to extract. Eg: `funimation:language=english,japanese`
* `language`: Languages to extract, e.g. `funimation:language=english,japanese`
* `version`: The video version to extract - `uncut` or `simulcast`
#### crunchyroll
* `language`: Languages to extract. Eg: `crunchyroll:language=jaJp`
* `hardsub`: Which hard-sub versions to extract. Eg: `crunchyroll:hardsub=None,enUS`
* `language`: Languages to extract, e.g. `crunchyroll:language=jaJp`
* `hardsub`: Which hard-sub versions to extract, e.g. `crunchyroll:hardsub=None,enUS`
#### crunchyrollbeta
* `format`: Which stream type(s) to extract. Default is `adaptive_hls` Eg: `crunchyrollbeta:format=vo_adaptive_hls`
* Potentially useful values include `adaptive_hls`, `adaptive_dash`, `vo_adaptive_hls`, `vo_adaptive_dash`, `download_hls`, `download_dash`, `multitrack_adaptive_hls_v2`
* `hardsub`: Preference order for which hardsub versions to extract. Default is `None` (no hardsubs). Eg: `crunchyrollbeta:hardsub=en-US,None`
* `format`: Which stream type(s) to extract (default: `adaptive_hls`). Potentially useful values include `adaptive_hls`, `adaptive_dash`, `vo_adaptive_hls`, `vo_adaptive_dash`, `download_hls`, `download_dash`, `multitrack_adaptive_hls_v2`
* `hardsub`: Preference order for which hardsub versions to extract (default: `None` = no hardsubs), e.g. `crunchyrollbeta:hardsub=en-US,None`
#### vikichannel
* `video_types`: Types of videos to download - one or more of `episodes`, `movies`, `clips`, `trailers`
@ -1798,11 +1797,11 @@ The following extractors use this feature:
* `dr`: dynamic range to ignore - one or more of `sdr`, `hdr10`, `dv`
#### tiktok
* `app_version`: App version to call mobile APIs with - should be set along with `manifest_app_version`. (e.g. `20.2.1`)
* `manifest_app_version`: Numeric app version to call mobile APIs with. (e.g. `221`)
* `app_version`: App version to call mobile APIs with - should be set along with `manifest_app_version`, e.g. `20.2.1`
* `manifest_app_version`: Numeric app version to call mobile APIs with, e.g. `221`
#### rokfinchannel
* `tab`: Which tab to download. One of `new`, `top`, `videos`, `podcasts`, `streams`, `stacks`. (E.g. `rokfinchannel:tab=streams`)
* `tab`: Which tab to download - one of `new`, `top`, `videos`, `podcasts`, `streams`, `stacks`
NOTE: These options may be changed/removed in the future without concern for backward compatibility
@ -2066,7 +2065,7 @@ While these options still work, their use is not recommended since there are oth
--all-formats -f all
--all-subs --sub-langs all --write-subs
--print-json -j --no-simulate
--autonumber-size NUMBER Use string formatting. Eg: %(autonumber)03d
--autonumber-size NUMBER Use string formatting, e.g. %(autonumber)03d
--autonumber-start NUMBER Use internal field formatting like %(autonumber+NUMBER)s
--id -o "%(id)s.%(ext)s"
--metadata-from-title FORMAT --parse-metadata "%(title)s:FORMAT"

@ -1584,7 +1584,7 @@
- **youtube:clip**
- **youtube:favorites**: YouTube liked videos; ":ytfav" keyword (requires cookies)
- **youtube:history**: Youtube watch history; ":ythis" keyword (requires cookies)
- **youtube:music:search_url**: YouTube music search URLs with selectable sections (Eg: #songs)
- **youtube:music:search_url**: YouTube music search URLs with selectable sections, e.g. #songs
- **youtube:notif**: YouTube notifications; ":ytnotif" keyword (requires cookies)
- **youtube:playlist**: YouTube playlists
- **youtube:recommended**: YouTube recommended videos; ":ytrec" keyword

@ -272,7 +272,7 @@ class YoutubeDL:
subtitleslangs: List of languages of the subtitles to download (can be regex).
The list may contain "all" to refer to all the available
subtitles. The language can be prefixed with a "-" to
exclude it from the requested languages. Eg: ['all', '-live_chat']
exclude it from the requested languages, e.g. ['all', '-live_chat']
keepvideo: Keep the video file after post-processing
daterange: A DateRange object, download only if the upload_date is in the range.
skip_download: Skip the actual download of the video file
@ -302,7 +302,7 @@ class YoutubeDL:
cookiefile: File name or text stream from where cookies should be read and dumped to
cookiesfrombrowser: A tuple containing the name of the browser, the profile
name/pathfrom where cookies are loaded, and the name of the
keyring. Eg: ('chrome', ) or ('vivaldi', 'default', 'BASICTEXT')
keyring, e.g. ('chrome', ) or ('vivaldi', 'default', 'BASICTEXT')
legacyserverconnect: Explicitly allow HTTPS connection to servers that do not
support RFC 5746 secure renegotiation
nocheckcertificate: Do not verify SSL certificates
@ -470,7 +470,7 @@ class YoutubeDL:
discontinuities such as ad breaks (default: False)
extractor_args: A dictionary of arguments to be passed to the extractors.
See "EXTRACTOR ARGUMENTS" for details.
Eg: {'youtube': {'skip': ['dash', 'hls']}}
E.g. {'youtube': {'skip': ['dash', 'hls']}}
mark_watched: Mark videos watched (even with --simulate). Only for YouTube
The following options are deprecated and may be removed in the future:
@ -1046,7 +1046,7 @@ class YoutubeDL:
# outtmpl should be expand_path'ed before template dict substitution
# because meta fields may contain env variables we don't want to
# be expanded. For example, for outtmpl "%(title)s.%(ext)s" and
# be expanded. E.g. for outtmpl "%(title)s.%(ext)s" and
# title "Hello $PATH", we don't want `$PATH` to be expanded.
return expand_path(outtmpl).replace(sep, '')
@ -1977,8 +1977,8 @@ class YoutubeDL:
filter_parts.append(string)
def _remove_unused_ops(tokens):
# Remove operators that we don't use and join them with the surrounding strings
# for example: 'mp4' '-' 'baseline' '-' '16x9' is converted to 'mp4-baseline-16x9'
# Remove operators that we don't use and join them with the surrounding strings.
# E.g. 'mp4' '-' 'baseline' '-' '16x9' is converted to 'mp4-baseline-16x9'
ALLOWED_OPS = ('/', '+', ',', '(', ')')
last_string, last_start, last_end, last_line = None, None, None, None
for type, string, start, end, line in tokens:

@ -184,7 +184,7 @@ def build_fragments_list(boot_info):
first_frag_number = fragment_run_entry_table[0]['first']
fragments_counter = itertools.count(first_frag_number)
for segment, fragments_count in segment_run_table['segment_run']:
# In some live HDS streams (for example Rai), `fragments_count` is
# In some live HDS streams (e.g. Rai), `fragments_count` is
# abnormal and causing out-of-memory errors. It's OK to change the
# number of fragments for live streams as they are updated periodically
if fragments_count == 4294967295 and boot_info['live']:

@ -365,7 +365,7 @@ class AbemaTVIE(AbemaTVBaseIE):
# read breadcrumb on top of page
breadcrumb = self._extract_breadcrumb_list(webpage, video_id)
if breadcrumb:
# breadcrumb list translates to: (example is 1st test for this IE)
# breadcrumb list translates to: (e.g. 1st test for this IE)
# Home > Anime (genre) > Isekai Shokudo 2 (series name) > Episode 1 "Cheese cakes" "Morning again" (episode title)
# hence this works
info['series'] = breadcrumb[-2]

@ -331,7 +331,7 @@ class InfoExtractor:
playable_in_embed: Whether this video is allowed to play in embedded
players on other sites. Can be True (=always allowed),
False (=never allowed), None (=unknown), or a string
specifying the criteria for embedability (Eg: 'whitelist')
specifying the criteria for embedability; e.g. 'whitelist'
availability: Under what condition the video is available. One of
'private', 'premium_only', 'subscriber_only', 'needs_auth',
'unlisted' or 'public'. Use 'InfoExtractor._availability'
@ -452,8 +452,8 @@ class InfoExtractor:
_extract_from_webpage may raise self.StopExtraction() to stop further
processing of the webpage and obtain exclusive rights to it. This is useful
when the extractor cannot reliably be matched using just the URL.
Eg: invidious/peertube instances
when the extractor cannot reliably be matched using just the URL,
e.g. invidious/peertube instances
Embed-only extractors can be defined by setting _VALID_URL = False.
@ -2367,7 +2367,7 @@ class InfoExtractor:
audio_group_id = last_stream_inf.get('AUDIO')
# As per [1, 4.3.4.1.1] any EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag which
# references a rendition group MUST have a CODECS attribute.
# However, this is not always respected, for example, [2]
# However, this is not always respected. E.g. [2]
# contains EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag which references AUDIO
# rendition group but does not have CODECS and despite
# referencing an audio group it represents a complete
@ -3003,8 +3003,8 @@ class InfoExtractor:
segment_number += 1
segment_time += segment_d
elif 'segment_urls' in representation_ms_info and 's' in representation_ms_info:
# No media template
# Example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXZV5uAYMJI
# No media template,
# e.g. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXZV5uAYMJI
# or any YouTube dashsegments video
fragments = []
segment_index = 0
@ -3021,7 +3021,7 @@ class InfoExtractor:
representation_ms_info['fragments'] = fragments
elif 'segment_urls' in representation_ms_info:
# Segment URLs with no SegmentTimeline
# Example: https://www.seznam.cz/zpravy/clanek/cesko-zasahne-vitr-o-sile-vichrice-muze-byt-i-zivotu-nebezpecny-39091
# E.g. https://www.seznam.cz/zpravy/clanek/cesko-zasahne-vitr-o-sile-vichrice-muze-byt-i-zivotu-nebezpecny-39091
# https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/pull/14844
fragments = []
segment_duration = float_or_none(
@ -3249,8 +3249,8 @@ class InfoExtractor:
media_tags.extend(re.findall(
# We only allow video|audio followed by a whitespace or '>'.
# Allowing more characters may end up in significant slow down (see
# https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues/11979, example URL:
# http://www.porntrex.com/maps/videositemap.xml).
# https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues/11979,
# e.g. http://www.porntrex.com/maps/videositemap.xml).
r'(?s)(<(?P<tag>%s)(?:\s+[^>]*)?>)(.*?)</(?P=tag)>' % _MEDIA_TAG_NAME_RE, webpage))
for media_tag, _, media_type, media_content in media_tags:
media_info = {
@ -3706,7 +3706,7 @@ class InfoExtractor:
desc += f'; "{cls.SEARCH_KEY}:" prefix'
if search_examples:
_COUNTS = ('', '5', '10', 'all')
desc += f' (Example: "{cls.SEARCH_KEY}{random.choice(_COUNTS)}:{random.choice(search_examples)}")'
desc += f' (e.g. "{cls.SEARCH_KEY}{random.choice(_COUNTS)}:{random.choice(search_examples)}")'
if not cls.working():
desc += ' (**Currently broken**)' if markdown else ' (Currently broken)'

@ -3035,7 +3035,7 @@ class GenericIE(InfoExtractor):
self.report_detected('Twitter card')
if not found:
# We look for Open Graph info:
# We have to match any number spaces between elements, some sites try to align them (eg.: statigr.am)
# We have to match any number spaces between elements, some sites try to align them, e.g.: statigr.am
m_video_type = re.findall(r'<meta.*?property="og:video:type".*?content="video/(.*?)"', webpage)
# We only look in og:video if the MIME type is a video, don't try if it's a Flash player:
if m_video_type is not None:

@ -169,7 +169,7 @@ class PhantomJSwrapper:
In most cases you don't need to add any `jscode`.
It is executed in `page.onLoadFinished`.
`saveAndExit();` is mandatory, use it instead of `phantom.exit()`
It is possible to wait for some element on the webpage, for example:
It is possible to wait for some element on the webpage, e.g.
var check = function() {
var elementFound = page.evaluate(function() {
return document.querySelector('#b.done') !== null;

@ -3247,9 +3247,9 @@ class YoutubeIE(YoutubeBaseInfoExtractor):
else -10 if 'descriptive' in (audio_track.get('displayName') or '').lower() and -10
else -1)
# Some formats may have much smaller duration than others (possibly damaged during encoding)
# Eg: 2-nOtRESiUc Ref: https://github.com/yt-dlp/yt-dlp/issues/2823
# E.g. 2-nOtRESiUc Ref: https://github.com/yt-dlp/yt-dlp/issues/2823
# Make sure to avoid false positives with small duration differences.
# Eg: __2ABJjxzNo, ySuUZEjARPY
# E.g. __2ABJjxzNo, ySuUZEjARPY
is_damaged = try_get(fmt, lambda x: float(x['approxDurationMs']) / duration < 500)
if is_damaged:
self.report_warning(
@ -5834,7 +5834,7 @@ class YoutubeSearchURLIE(YoutubeTabBaseInfoExtractor):
class YoutubeMusicSearchURLIE(YoutubeTabBaseInfoExtractor):
IE_DESC = 'YouTube music search URLs with selectable sections (Eg: #songs)'
IE_DESC = 'YouTube music search URLs with selectable sections, e.g. #songs'
IE_NAME = 'youtube:music:search_url'
_VALID_URL = r'https?://music\.youtube\.com/search\?([^#]+&)?(?:search_query|q)=(?:[^&]+)(?:[&#]|$)'
_TESTS = [{

@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ def format_text(text, f):
'''
@param f String representation of formatting to apply in the form:
[style] [light] font_color [on [light] bg_color]
Eg: "red", "bold green on light blue"
E.g. "red", "bold green on light blue"
'''
f = f.upper()
tokens = f.strip().split()

@ -77,7 +77,7 @@ def parseOpts(overrideArguments=None, ignore_config_files='if_override'):
if root.parse_known_args()[0].ignoreconfig:
return False
# Multiple package names can be given here
# Eg: ('yt-dlp', 'youtube-dlc', 'youtube-dl') will look for
# E.g. ('yt-dlp', 'youtube-dlc', 'youtube-dl') will look for
# the configuration file of any of these three packages
for package in ('yt-dlp',):
if user:
@ -374,7 +374,7 @@ def create_parser():
dest='default_search', metavar='PREFIX',
help=(
'Use this prefix for unqualified URLs. '
'Eg: "gvsearch2:python" downloads two videos from google videos for the search term "python". '
'E.g. "gvsearch2:python" downloads two videos from google videos for the search term "python". '
'Use the value "auto" to let yt-dlp guess ("auto_warning" to emit a warning when guessing). '
'"error" just throws an error. The default value "fixup_error" repairs broken URLs, '
'but emits an error if this is not possible instead of searching'))
@ -459,7 +459,7 @@ def create_parser():
help=(
'Create aliases for an option string. Unless an alias starts with a dash "-", it is prefixed with "--". '
'Arguments are parsed according to the Python string formatting mini-language. '
'Eg: --alias get-audio,-X "-S=aext:{0},abr -x --audio-format {0}" creates options '
'E.g. --alias get-audio,-X "-S=aext:{0},abr -x --audio-format {0}" creates options '
'"--get-audio" and "-X" that takes an argument (ARG0) and expands to '
'"-S=aext:ARG0,abr -x --audio-format ARG0". All defined aliases are listed in the --help output. '
'Alias options can trigger more aliases; so be careful to avoid defining recursive options. '
@ -471,8 +471,8 @@ def create_parser():
'--proxy', dest='proxy',
default=None, metavar='URL',
help=(
'Use the specified HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS proxy. To enable SOCKS proxy, specify a proper scheme. '
'Eg: socks5://user:pass@127.0.0.1:1080/. Pass in an empty string (--proxy "") for direct connection'))
'Use the specified HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS proxy. To enable SOCKS proxy, specify a proper scheme, '
'e.g. socks5://user:pass@127.0.0.1:1080/. Pass in an empty string (--proxy "") for direct connection'))
network.add_option(
'--socket-timeout',
dest='socket_timeout', type=float, default=None, metavar='SECONDS',
@ -537,7 +537,7 @@ def create_parser():
'Comma separated playlist_index of the videos to download. '
'You can specify a range using "[START]:[STOP][:STEP]". For backward compatibility, START-STOP is also supported. '
'Use negative indices to count from the right and negative STEP to download in reverse order. '
'Eg: "-I 1:3,7,-5::2" used on a playlist of size 15 will download the videos at index 1,2,3,7,11,13,15'))
'E.g. "-I 1:3,7,-5::2" used on a playlist of size 15 will download the videos at index 1,2,3,7,11,13,15'))
selection.add_option(
'--match-title',
dest='matchtitle', metavar='REGEX',
@ -549,17 +549,17 @@ def create_parser():
selection.add_option(
'--min-filesize',
metavar='SIZE', dest='min_filesize', default=None,
help='Do not download any videos smaller than SIZE (e.g. 50k or 44.6m)')
help='Do not download any videos smaller than SIZE, e.g. 50k or 44.6M')
selection.add_option(
'--max-filesize',
metavar='SIZE', dest='max_filesize', default=None,
help='Do not download any videos larger than SIZE (e.g. 50k or 44.6m)')
help='Do not download any videos larger than SIZE, e.g. 50k or 44.6M')
selection.add_option(
'--date',
metavar='DATE', dest='date', default=None,
help=(
'Download only videos uploaded on this date. The date can be "YYYYMMDD" or in the format '
'[now|today|yesterday][-N[day|week|month|year]]. Eg: --date today-2weeks'))
'[now|today|yesterday][-N[day|week|month|year]]. E.g. --date today-2weeks'))
selection.add_option(
'--datebefore',
metavar='DATE', dest='datebefore', default=None,
@ -589,7 +589,7 @@ def create_parser():
'You can also simply specify a field to match if the field is present, '
'use "!field" to check if the field is not present, and "&" to check multiple conditions. '
'Use a "\\" to escape "&" or quotes if needed. If used multiple times, '
'the filter matches if atleast one of the conditions are met. Eg: --match-filter '
'the filter matches if atleast one of the conditions are met. E.g. --match-filter '
'!is_live --match-filter "like_count>?100 & description~=\'(?i)\\bcats \\& dogs\\b\'" '
'matches only videos that are not live OR those that have a like count more than 100 '
'(or the like field is not available) and also has a description '
@ -785,7 +785,7 @@ def create_parser():
'--merge-output-format',
action='store', dest='merge_output_format', metavar='FORMAT', default=None,
help=(
'Containers that may be used when merging formats, separated by "/" (Eg: "mp4/mkv"). '
'Containers that may be used when merging formats, separated by "/", e.g. "mp4/mkv". '
'Ignored if no merge is required. '
f'(currently supported: {", ".join(sorted(FFmpegMergerPP.SUPPORTED_EXTS))})'))
video_format.add_option(
@ -825,14 +825,14 @@ def create_parser():
subtitles.add_option(
'--sub-format',
action='store', dest='subtitlesformat', metavar='FORMAT', default='best',
help='Subtitle format; accepts formats preference, Eg: "srt" or "ass/srt/best"')
help='Subtitle format; accepts formats preference, e.g. "srt" or "ass/srt/best"')
subtitles.add_option(
'--sub-langs', '--srt-langs',
action='callback', dest='subtitleslangs', metavar='LANGS', type='str',
default=[], callback=_list_from_options_callback,
help=(
'Languages of the subtitles to download (can be regex) or "all" separated by commas. (Eg: --sub-langs "en.*,ja") '
'You can prefix the language code with a "-" to exclude it from the requested languages. (Eg: --sub-langs all,-live_chat) '
'Languages of the subtitles to download (can be regex) or "all" separated by commas, e.g. --sub-langs "en.*,ja". '
'You can prefix the language code with a "-" to exclude it from the requested languages, e.g. --sub-langs all,-live_chat. '
'Use --list-subs for a list of available language tags'))
downloader = optparse.OptionGroup(parser, 'Download Options')
@ -843,11 +843,11 @@ def create_parser():
downloader.add_option(
'-r', '--limit-rate', '--rate-limit',
dest='ratelimit', metavar='RATE',
help='Maximum download rate in bytes per second (e.g. 50K or 4.2M)')
help='Maximum download rate in bytes per second, e.g. 50K or 4.2M')
downloader.add_option(
'--throttled-rate',
dest='throttledratelimit', metavar='RATE',
help='Minimum download rate in bytes per second below which throttling is assumed and the video data is re-extracted (e.g. 100K)')
help='Minimum download rate in bytes per second below which throttling is assumed and the video data is re-extracted, e.g. 100K')
downloader.add_option(
'-R', '--retries',
dest='retries', metavar='RETRIES', default=10,
@ -871,8 +871,8 @@ def create_parser():
'Time to sleep between retries in seconds (optionally) prefixed by the type of retry '
'(http (default), fragment, file_access, extractor) to apply the sleep to. '
'EXPR can be a number, linear=START[:END[:STEP=1]] or exp=START[:END[:BASE=2]]. '
'This option can be used multiple times to set the sleep for the different retry types. '
'Eg: --retry-sleep linear=1::2 --retry-sleep fragment:exp=1:20'))
'This option can be used multiple times to set the sleep for the different retry types, '
'e.g. --retry-sleep linear=1::2 --retry-sleep fragment:exp=1:20'))
downloader.add_option(
'--skip-unavailable-fragments', '--no-abort-on-unavailable-fragment',
action='store_true', dest='skip_unavailable_fragments', default=True,
@ -892,7 +892,7 @@ def create_parser():
downloader.add_option(
'--buffer-size',
dest='buffersize', metavar='SIZE', default='1024',
help='Size of download buffer (e.g. 1024 or 16K) (default is %default)')
help='Size of download buffer, e.g. 1024 or 16K (default is %default)')
downloader.add_option(
'--resize-buffer',
action='store_false', dest='noresizebuffer',
@ -905,7 +905,7 @@ def create_parser():
'--http-chunk-size',
dest='http_chunk_size', metavar='SIZE', default=None,
help=(
'Size of a chunk for chunk-based HTTP downloading (e.g. 10485760 or 10M) (default is disabled). '
'Size of a chunk for chunk-based HTTP downloading, e.g. 10485760 or 10M (default is disabled). '
'May be useful for bypassing bandwidth throttling imposed by a webserver (experimental)'))
downloader.add_option(
'--test',
@ -963,8 +963,8 @@ def create_parser():
help=(
'Download only chapters whose title matches the given regular expression. '
'Time ranges prefixed by a "*" can also be used in place of chapters to download the specified range. '
'Eg: --download-sections "*10:15-15:00" --download-sections "intro". '
'Needs ffmpeg. This option can be used multiple times to download multiple sections'))
'Needs ffmpeg. This option can be used multiple times to download multiple sections, '
'e.g. --download-sections "*10:15-15:00" --download-sections "intro"'))
downloader.add_option(
'--downloader', '--external-downloader',
dest='external_downloader', metavar='[PROTO:]NAME', default={}, type='str',
@ -978,7 +978,7 @@ def create_parser():
'the protocols (http, ftp, m3u8, dash, rstp, rtmp, mms) to use it for. '
f'Currently supports native, {", ".join(sorted(list_external_downloaders()))}. '
'You can use this option multiple times to set different downloaders for different protocols. '
'For example, --downloader aria2c --downloader "dash,m3u8:native" will use '
'E.g. --downloader aria2c --downloader "dash,m3u8:native" will use '
'aria2c for http/ftp downloads, and the native downloader for dash/m3u8 downloads '
'(Alias: --external-downloader)'))
downloader.add_option(
@ -1188,7 +1188,7 @@ def create_parser():
'Template for progress outputs, optionally prefixed with one of "download:" (default), '
'"download-title:" (the console title), "postprocess:", or "postprocess-title:". '
'The video\'s fields are accessible under the "info" key and '
'the progress attributes are accessible under "progress" key. E.g.: '
'the progress attributes are accessible under "progress" key. E.g. '
# TODO: Document the fields inside "progress"
'--console-title --progress-template "download-title:%(info.id)s-%(progress.eta)s"'))
verbosity.add_option(
@ -1488,7 +1488,7 @@ def create_parser():
'Remux the video into another container if necessary '
f'(currently supported: {", ".join(FFmpegVideoRemuxerPP.SUPPORTED_EXTS)}). '
'If target container does not support the video/audio codec, remuxing will fail. You can specify multiple rules; '
'Eg. "aac>m4a/mov>mp4/mkv" will remux aac to m4a, mov to mp4 and anything else to mkv'))
'e.g. "aac>m4a/mov>mp4/mkv" will remux aac to m4a, mov to mp4 and anything else to mkv'))
postproc.add_option(
'--recode-video',
metavar='FORMAT', dest='recodevideo', default=None,
@ -1513,7 +1513,7 @@ def create_parser():
'You can also specify "PP+EXE:ARGS" to give the arguments to the specified executable '
'only when being used by the specified postprocessor. Additionally, for ffmpeg/ffprobe, '
'"_i"/"_o" can be appended to the prefix optionally followed by a number to pass the argument '
'before the specified input/output file. Eg: --ppa "Merger+ffmpeg_i1:-v quiet". '
'before the specified input/output file, e.g. --ppa "Merger+ffmpeg_i1:-v quiet". '
'You can use this option multiple times to give different arguments to different '
'postprocessors. (Alias: --ppa)'))
postproc.add_option(
@ -1729,7 +1729,7 @@ def create_parser():
'SponsorBlock categories to create chapters for, separated by commas. '
f'Available categories are {", ".join(SponsorBlockPP.CATEGORIES.keys())}, all and default (=all). '
'You can prefix the category with a "-" to exclude it. See [1] for description of the categories. '
'Eg: --sponsorblock-mark all,-preview [1] https://wiki.sponsor.ajay.app/w/Segment_Categories'))
'E.g. --sponsorblock-mark all,-preview [1] https://wiki.sponsor.ajay.app/w/Segment_Categories'))
sponsorblock.add_option(
'--sponsorblock-remove', metavar='CATS',
dest='sponsorblock_remove', default=set(), action='callback', type='str',

@ -610,7 +610,7 @@ def sanitize_open(filename, open_mode):
if sys.platform == 'win32':
import msvcrt
# stdout may be any IO stream. Eg, when using contextlib.redirect_stdout
# stdout may be any IO stream, e.g. when using contextlib.redirect_stdout
with contextlib.suppress(io.UnsupportedOperation):
msvcrt.setmode(sys.stdout.fileno(), os.O_BINARY)
return (sys.stdout.buffer if hasattr(sys.stdout, 'buffer') else sys.stdout, filename)
@ -786,8 +786,8 @@ def _htmlentity_transform(entity_with_semicolon):
if entity in html.entities.name2codepoint:
return chr(html.entities.name2codepoint[entity])
# TODO: HTML5 allows entities without a semicolon. For example,
# '&Eacuteric' should be decoded as 'Éric'.
# TODO: HTML5 allows entities without a semicolon.
# E.g. '&Eacuteric' should be decoded as 'Éric'.
if entity_with_semicolon in html.entities.html5:
return html.entities.html5[entity_with_semicolon]

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