Browse Source

Fix several adoc files as reported by Helge Kreutzmann

pull/1601/head
Mario Blättermann 6 months ago
parent
commit
bd67ca4480
  1. 2
      disk-utils/cfdisk.8.adoc
  2. 2
      disk-utils/fdisk.8.adoc
  3. 2
      disk-utils/mkfs.minix.8.adoc
  4. 2
      disk-utils/mkswap.8.adoc
  5. 10
      disk-utils/sfdisk.8.adoc
  6. 2
      libblkid/libblkid.3.adoc
  7. 8
      login-utils/lslogins.1.adoc
  8. 4
      login-utils/runuser.1.adoc
  9. 6
      login-utils/su.1.adoc
  10. 2
      misc-utils/getopt.1.adoc
  11. 2
      misc-utils/hardlink.1.adoc
  12. 10
      misc-utils/logger.1.adoc
  13. 2
      misc-utils/lsblk.8.adoc
  14. 4
      sys-utils/flock.1.adoc
  15. 4
      sys-utils/lscpu.1.adoc
  16. 2
      sys-utils/lsmem.1.adoc
  17. 5
      sys-utils/lsns.8.adoc
  18. 36
      sys-utils/mount.8.adoc
  19. 8
      sys-utils/rfkill.8.adoc
  20. 2
      sys-utils/rtcwake.8.adoc
  21. 4
      sys-utils/swapon.8.adoc
  22. 8
      sys-utils/umount.8.adoc
  23. 4
      sys-utils/unshare.1.adoc
  24. 12
      term-utils/agetty.8.adoc
  25. 4
      term-utils/script.1.adoc
  26. 4
      term-utils/scriptreplay.1.adoc
  27. 4
      text-utils/colcrt.1.adoc
  28. 8
      text-utils/hexdump.1.adoc

2
disk-utils/cfdisk.8.adoc

@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ include::man-common/help-version.adoc[]
Colorize the output. The optional argument _when_ can be *auto*, *never* or *always*. If the _when_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *auto*. The colors can be disabled, for the current built-in default see *--help* output. See also the *COLORS* section.
*--lock*[=_mode_]::
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *"yes"*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with udevd or other tools.
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *yes*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with *systemd-udevd*(8) or other tools.
*-r*, *--read-only*::
Forced open in read-only mode.

2
disk-utils/fdisk.8.adoc

@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ If no devices are given, the devices mentioned in _/proc/partitions_ (if this fi
Like *--list*, but provides more details.
*--lock*[=_mode_]::
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *"yes"*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with udevd or other tools.
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *yes*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with *systemd-udevd*(8) or other tools.
*-n*, *--noauto-pt*::
Don't automatically create a default partition table on empty device. The partition table has to be explicitly created by user (by command like 'o', 'g', etc.).

2
disk-utils/mkfs.minix.8.adoc

@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ Check the device for bad blocks before creating the filesystem. If any are found
Specify the maximum length of filenames. Currently, the only allowable values are 14 and 30 for file system versions 1 and 2. Version 3 allows only value 60. The default is 30.
*--lock*[=_mode_]::
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *"yes"*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with udevd or other tools.
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *yes*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with *systemd-udevd*(8) or other tools.
*-i*, *--inodes* _number_::
Specify the number of inodes for the filesystem.

2
disk-utils/mkswap.8.adoc

@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ Suppress output and warning messages.
Specify a _label_ for the device, to allow *swapon*(8) by label.
*--lock*[=_mode_]::
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *"yes"*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with udevd or other tools.
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *yes*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with *systemd-udevd*(8) or other tools.
*-p*, *--pagesize* _size_::
Specify the page _size_ (in bytes) to use. This option is usually unnecessary; *mkswap* reads the size from the kernel.

10
disk-utils/sfdisk.8.adoc

@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ The recommended way is not to specify start offsets at all and specify partition
*sfdisk* does not create the standard system partitions for SGI and SUN disk labels like *fdisk*(8) does. It is necessary to explicitly create all partitions including whole-disk system partitions.
*sfdisk* uses *BLKRRPART* (reread partition table) ioctl to make sure that the device is not used by system or other tools (see also *--no-reread*). It's possible that this feature or another *sfdisk* activity races with *udevd*. The recommended way how to avoid possible collisions is to use *--lock* option. The exclusive lock will cause udevd to skip the event handling on the device.
*sfdisk* uses *BLKRRPART* (reread partition table) ioctl to make sure that the device is not used by system or other tools (see also *--no-reread*). It's possible that this feature or another *sfdisk* activity races with *systemd-udevd*(8). The recommended way how to avoid possible collisions is to use *--lock* option. The exclusive lock will cause *systemd-udevd* to skip the event handling on the device.
The *sfdisk* prompt is only a hint for users and a displayed partition number does not mean that the same partition table entry will be created (if *-N* not specified), especially for tables with gaps.
@ -156,7 +156,7 @@ Disable all consistency checking.
Deprecated and ignored option. Partitioning that is compatible with Linux (and other modern operating systems) is the default.
*--lock*[=_mode_]::
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *"yes"*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with udevd or other tools.
Use exclusive BSD lock for device or file it operates. The optional argument _mode_ can be *yes*, *no* (or 1 and 0) or *nonblock*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, it defaults to *yes*. This option overwrites environment variable *$LOCK_BLOCK_DEVICE*. The default is not to use any lock at all, but it's recommended to avoid collisions with *systemd-udevd*(8) or other tools.
*-n*, *--no-act*::
Do everything except writing to the device.
@ -208,7 +208,7 @@ Force editing of a nested disk label. The primary disk label has to exist alread
Wipe filesystem, RAID and partition-table signatures from the device, in order to avoid possible collisions. The argument _when_ can be *auto*, *never* or *always*. When this option is not given, the default is *auto*, in which case signatures are wiped only when in interactive mode; except the old partition-table signatures which are always wiped before create a new partition-table if the argument _when_ is not *never*. The *auto* mode also does not wipe the first sector (boot sector), it is necessary to use the *always* mode to wipe this area. In all cases detected signatures are reported by warning messages before a new partition table is created. See also the *wipefs*(8) command.
*-W*, *--wipe-partitions* _when_::
Wipe filesystem, RAID and partition-table signatures from a newly created partitions, in order to avoid possible collisions. The argument _when_ can be *auto*, *never* or *always*. When this option is not given, the default is *auto*, in which case signatures are wiped only when in interactive mode and after confirmation by user. In all cases detected signatures are reported by warning messages after a new partition is created. See also *wipefs*(8) command.
Wipe filesystem, RAID and partition-table signatures from a newly created partition, in order to avoid possible collisions. The argument _when_ can be *auto*, *never* or *always*. When this option is not given, the default is *auto*, in which case signatures are wiped only when in interactive mode and after confirmation by user. In all cases detected signatures are reported by warning messages after a new partition is created. See also *wipefs*(8) command.
*-v*, *--version*::
Display version information and exit.
@ -257,7 +257,7 @@ where each line fills one partition descriptor.
Fields are separated by whitespace, comma (recommended) or semicolon possibly followed by whitespace; initial and trailing whitespace is ignored. Numbers can be octal, decimal or hexadecimal; decimal is the default. When a field is absent, empty or specified as '-' a default value is used. But when the *-N* option (change a single partition) is given, the default for each field is its previous value.
The default value of _start_ is the first non-assigned sector aligned according to device I/O limits. The default start offset for the first partition is 1 MiB. The offset may be followed by the multiplicative suffixes (KiB, MiB, GiB, TiB, PiB, EiB, ZiB and YiB) then the number is interpreted as offset in bytes. Since v2.38 when the *-N* option (change a single partition) is given, a '{plus}' can be used to enlarge partition by move start of the partition if there is a free space before the partition.
The default value of _start_ is the first non-assigned sector aligned according to device I/O limits. The default start offset for the first partition is 1 MiB. If the offset is followed by the multiplicative suffixes (KiB, MiB, GiB, TiB, PiB, EiB, ZiB and YiB), then the number is interpreted as offset in bytes. Since v2.38 when the *-N* option (change a single partition) is given, a '{plus}' can be used to enlarge partition by move start of the partition if there is a free space before the partition.
//TRANSLATORS: Keep {plus} untranslated.
The default value of _size_ indicates "as much as possible"; i.e., until the next partition or end-of-device. A numerical argument is by default interpreted as a number of sectors, however if the size is followed by one of the multiplicative suffixes (KiB, MiB, GiB, TiB, PiB, EiB, ZiB and YiB) then the number is interpreted as the size of the partition in bytes and it is then aligned according to the device I/O limits. A '{plus}' can be used instead of a number to enlarge the partition as much as possible. Note '{plus}' is equivalent to the default behaviour for a new partition; existing partitions will be resized as required.
@ -313,7 +313,7 @@ The _value_ can be between quotation marks (e.g., name="This is partition name")
The currently supported fields are:
**start=**__number__::
The first non-assigned sector aligned according to device I/O limits. The default start offset for the first partition is 1 MiB. The offset may be followed by the multiplicative suffixes (KiB, MiB, GiB, TiB, PiB, EiB, ZiB and YiB) then the number is interpreted as offset in bytes.
The first non-assigned sector aligned according to device I/O limits. The default start offset for the first partition is 1 MiB. If the offset is followed by the multiplicative suffixes (KiB, MiB, GiB, TiB, PiB, EiB, ZiB and YiB), then the number is interpreted as offset in bytes.
**size=**__number__::
Specify the partition size in sectors. The number may be followed by the multiplicative suffixes (KiB, MiB, GiB, TiB, PiB, EiB, ZiB and YiB), then it's interpreted as size in bytes and the size is aligned according to device I/O limits.

2
libblkid/libblkid.3.adoc

@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ The high-level part of the library keeps information about block devices in a ca
In situations where one is getting information about a single known device, it does not impact performance whether the cache is used or not (unless you are not able to read the block device directly).
The high-level part of the library supports two methods to evaluate *LABEL/UUID*. It reads information directly from a block device or read information from /dev/disk/by-* udev symlinks. The udev is preferred method by default.
The high-level part of the library supports two methods to determine *LABEL/UUID*. It reads information directly from a block device or read information from /dev/disk/by-* udev symlinks. The udev is preferred method by default.
If you are dealing with multiple devices, use of the cache is highly recommended (even if empty) as devices will be scanned at most one time and the on-disk cache will be updated if possible.

8
login-utils/lslogins.1.adoc

@ -49,13 +49,13 @@ Show information about supplementary groups.
*-g*, **--groups**=_groups_::
Only show data of users belonging to _groups_. More than one group may be specified; the list has to be comma-separated. Unknown group names are ignored.
+
Note that relation between user and group may be invisible for primary group if the user is not explicitly specify as group member (e.g., in _/etc/group_). If the command *lslogins* scans for groups than it uses groups database only, and user database with primary GID is not used at all.
Note that the relation between user and group may be invisible for the primary group if the user is not explicitly specified as group member (e.g., in _/etc/group_). If the command *lslogins* scans for groups then it uses the groups database only, and the user database with primary GID is not used at all.
*-L*, *--last*::
Display data containing information about the users' last login sessions.
*-l*, **--logins**=_logins_::
Only show data of users with a login specified in _logins_ (user names or user IDS). More than one login may be specified; the list has to be comma-separated. Unknown login names are ignored.
Only show data of users with a login specified in _logins_ (user names or user IDs). More than one login may be specified; the list has to be comma-separated. Unknown login names are ignored.
*-n*, *--newline*::
Display each piece of information on a separate line.
@ -73,13 +73,13 @@ Specify which output columns to print. The default list of columns may be extend
Output all available columns. *--help* to get a list of all supported columns.
*-p*, *--pwd*::
Display information related to login by password (see also *-afL).*
Display information related to login by password (see also *-afL*).
*-r*, *--raw*::
Raw output (no columnation).
*-s*, *--system-accs*::
Show system accounts. These are by default all accounts with a UID between 101 and 999 (inclusive), with the exception of either nobody or nfsnobody (UID 65534). This hardcoded default may be overwritten by parameters SYS_UID_MIN and SYS_UID_MAX in the file _/etc/login.defs_.
Show system accounts. These are by default all accounts with a UID between 101 and 999 (inclusive), with the exception of either nobody or nfsnobody (UID 65534). This hardcoded default may be overwritten by parameters *SYS_UID_MIN* and *SYS_UID_MAX* in the file _/etc/login.defs_.
*--time-format* _type_::
Display dates in short, full or iso format. The default is short, this time format is designed to be space efficient and human readable.

4
login-utils/runuser.1.adoc

@ -53,9 +53,9 @@ Start the shell as a login shell with an environment similar to a real login:
* sets argv[0] of the shell to '*-*' in order to make the shell a login shell
*-P*, *--pty*::
Create a pseudo-terminal for the session. The independent terminal provides better security as the user does not share a terminal with the original session. This can be used to avoid TIOCSTI ioctl terminal injection and other security attacks against terminal file descriptors. The entire session can also be moved to the background (e.g., *runuser --pty -u username -- command &*). If the pseudo-terminal is enabled, then *runuser* works as a proxy between the sessions (copy stdin and stdout).
Create a pseudo-terminal for the session. The independent terminal provides better security as the user does not share a terminal with the original session. This can be used to avoid TIOCSTI ioctl terminal injection and other security attacks against terminal file descriptors. The entire session can also be moved to the background (e.g., *runuser --pty* *-u* _username_ *--* _command_ *&*). If the pseudo-terminal is enabled, then *runuser* works as a proxy between the sessions (sync stdin and stdout).
+
This feature is mostly designed for interactive sessions. If the standard input is not a terminal, but for example a pipe (e.g., *echo "date" | runuser --pty -u user*), then the ECHO flag for the pseudo-terminal is disabled to avoid messy output.
This feature is mostly designed for interactive sessions. If the standard input is not a terminal, but for example a pipe (e.g., *echo "date" | runuser --pty -u* _user_), then the *ECHO* flag for the pseudo-terminal is disabled to avoid messy output.
*-m*, *-p*, *--preserve-environment*::
Preserve the entire environment, i.e., do not set *HOME*, *SHELL*, *USER* or *LOGNAME*. The option is ignored if the option *--login* is specified.

6
login-utils/su.1.adoc

@ -57,9 +57,9 @@ Start the shell as a login shell with an environment similar to a real login:
Preserve the entire environment, i.e., do not set *HOME*, *SHELL*, *USER* or *LOGNAME*. This option is ignored if the option *--login* is specified.
*-P*, *--pty*::
Create a pseudo-terminal for the session. The independent terminal provides better security as the user does not share a terminal with the original session. This can be used to avoid TIOCSTI ioctl terminal injection and other security attacks against terminal file descriptors. The entire session can also be moved to the background (e.g., "su --pty - username -c application &"). If the pseudo-terminal is enabled, then *su* works as a proxy between the sessions (copy stdin and stdout).
Create a pseudo-terminal for the session. The independent terminal provides better security as the user does not share a terminal with the original session. This can be used to avoid *TIOCSTI* ioctl terminal injection and other security attacks against terminal file descriptors. The entire session can also be moved to the background (e.g., *su --pty **-** __username__ *-c* _application_ *&*). If the pseudo-terminal is enabled, then *su* works as a proxy between the sessions (sync stdin and stdout).
+
This feature is mostly designed for interactive sessions. If the standard input is not a terminal, but for example a pipe (e.g., echo "date" | su --pty), then the *ECHO* flag for the pseudo-terminal is disabled to avoid messy output.
This feature is mostly designed for interactive sessions. If the standard input is not a terminal, but for example a pipe (e.g., *echo "date" | su --pty*), then the *ECHO* flag for the pseudo-terminal is disabled to avoid messy output.
*-s*, **--shell**=__shell__::
Run the specified _shell_ instead of the default. The shell to run is selected according to the following rules, in order:
@ -132,7 +132,7 @@ global logindef config file
== NOTES
For security reasons, *su* always logs failed log-in attempts to the btmp file, but it does not write to the _lastlog_ file at all. This solution can be used to control *su* behavior by PAM configuration. If you want to use the *pam_lastlog*(8) module to print warning message about failed log-in attempts then *pam_lastlog*(8) has to be configured to update the _lastlog_ file as well. For example by:
For security reasons, *su* always logs failed log-in attempts to the _btmp_ file, but it does not write to the _lastlog_ file at all. This solution can be used to control *su* behavior by PAM configuration. If you want to use the *pam_lastlog*(8) module to print warning message about failed log-in attempts then *pam_lastlog*(8) has to be configured to update the _lastlog_ file as well. For example by:
____
session required pam_lastlog.so nowtmp

2
misc-utils/getopt.1.adoc

@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ Disable error reporting by *getopt*(3).
Do not generate normal output. Errors are still reported by *getopt*(3), unless you also use *-q*.
*-s*, *--shell* _shell_::
Set quoting conventions to those of _shell_. If the *-s* option is not given, the BASH conventions are used. Valid arguments are currently '*sh*' '*bash*', '*csh*', and '*tcsh*'.
Set quoting conventions to those of _shell_. If the *-s* option is not given, the *BASH* conventions are used. Valid arguments are currently '*sh*', '*bash*', '*csh*', and '*tcsh*'.
*-T*, *--test*::
Test if your *getopt*(1) is this enhanced version or an old version. This generates no output, and sets the error status to 4. Other implementations of *getopt*(1), and this version if the environment variable *GETOPT_COMPATIBLE* is set, will return '*--*' and error status 0.

2
misc-utils/hardlink.1.adoc

@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ size is important for large files or a large sets of files of the same size. The
== BUGS
The original *hardlink* implementation uses the option *-f* to force hardlinks creation between filesystem. This very rarely usable feature is no more supported by the current hardlink.
The original *hardlink* implementation uses the option *-f* to force hardlinks creation between filesystem. This very rarely usable feature is no more supported by the current *hardlink*.
*hardlink* assumes that the trees it operates on do not change during operation. If a tree does change, the result is undefined and potentially dangerous. For example, if a regular file is replaced by a device, *hardlink* may start reading from the device. If a component of a path is replaced by a symbolic link or file permissions change, security may be compromised. Do not run *hardlink* on a changing tree or on a tree controlled by another user.

10
misc-utils/logger.1.adoc

@ -76,7 +76,7 @@ Log the PID of the *logger* process with each line. When the optional argument _
Note that the system logging infrastructure (for example *systemd* when listening on _/dev/log_) may follow local socket credentials to overwrite the PID specified in the message. *logger*(1) is able to set those socket credentials to the given _id_, but only if you have root permissions and a process with the specified PID exists, otherwise the socket credentials are not modified and the problem is silently ignored.
*--journald*[**=**__file__]::
Write a systemd journal entry. The entry is read from the given _file_, when specified, otherwise from standard input. Each line must begin with a field that is accepted by journald; see *systemd.journal-fields*(7) for details. The use of a MESSAGE_ID field is generally a good idea, as it makes finding entries easy. Examples:
Write a *systemd* journal entry. The entry is read from the given _file_, when specified, otherwise from standard input. Each line must begin with a field that is accepted by *journald*; see *systemd.journal-fields*(7) for details. The use of a MESSAGE_ID field is generally a good idea, as it makes finding entries easy. Examples:
____
logger --journald <<end
@ -99,13 +99,13 @@ Sets the link:https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5424[RFC 5424] MSGID field. Note th
Write to the specified remote syslog _server_ instead of to the system log socket. Unless *--udp* or *--tcp* is specified, *logger* will first try to use UDP, but if this fails a TCP connection is attempted.
*--no-act*::
Causes everything to be done except for writing the log message to the system log, and removing the connection or the journal. This option can be used together with *--stderr* for testing purposes.
Causes everything to be done except for writing the log message to the system log, and removing the connection to the journal. This option can be used together with *--stderr* for testing purposes.
*--octet-count*::
Use the link:https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6587[RFC 6587] octet counting framing method for sending messages. When this option is not used, the default is no framing on UDP, and RFC6587 non-transparent framing (also known as octet stuffing) on TCP.
*-P*, *--port* _port_::
Use the specified _port_. When this option is not specified, the port defaults to syslog for udp and to syslog-conn for tcp connections.
Use the specified _port_. When this option is not specified, the port defaults to *syslog* for udp and to *syslog-conn* for tcp connections.
*-p*, *--priority* _priority_::
Enter the message into the log with the specified _priority_. The priority may be specified numerically or as a _facility_._level_ pair. For example, *-p local3.info* logs the message as informational in the local3 facility. The default is *user.notice*.
@ -137,7 +137,7 @@ Output the message to standard error as well as to the system log.
*--sd-id* _name_[**@**__digits__]::
Specifies a structured data element ID for an RFC 5424 message header. The option has to be used before *--sd-param* to introduce a new element. The number of structured data elements is unlimited. The ID (_name_ plus possibly **@**__digits__) is case-sensitive and uniquely identifies the type and purpose of the element. The same ID must not exist more than once in a message. The **@**__digits__ part is required for user-defined non-standardized IDs.
+
*logger* currently generates the *timeQuality* standardized element only. RFC 5424 also describes the elements *origin* (with parameters ip, enterpriseId, software and swVersion) and *meta* (with parameters sequenceId, sysUpTime and language). These element IDs may be specified without the **@**__digits__ suffix.
*logger* currently generates the *timeQuality* standardized element only. RFC 5424 also describes the elements *origin* (with parameters *ip*, *enterpriseId*, *software* and *swVersion*) and *meta* (with parameters *sequenceId*, *sysUpTime* and *language*). These element IDs may be specified without the **@**__digits__ suffix.
*--sd-param* _name_=_value_::
Specifies a structured data element parameter, a name and value pair. The option has to be used after *--sd-id* and may be specified more than once for the same element. Note that the quotation marks around _value_ are required and must be escaped on the command line.
@ -162,7 +162,7 @@ Most receivers accept messages larger than 1KiB over any type of syslog protocol
Note: the message-size limit limits the overall message size, including the syslog header. Header sizes vary depending on the selected options and the hostname length. As a rule of thumb, headers are usually not longer than 50 to 80 characters. When selecting a maximum message size, it is important to ensure that the receiver supports the max size as well, otherwise messages may become truncated. Again, as a rule of thumb two to four KiB message size should generally be OK, whereas anything larger should be verified to work.
*--socket-errors*[**=**__mode__]::
Print errors about Unix socket connections. The _mode_ can be a value of *off*, *on*, or *auto*. When the mode is *auto*, then *logger* will detect if the init process is *systemd*(1), and if so assumption is made _/dev/log_ can be used early at boot. Other init systems lack of _/dev/log_ will not cause errors that is identical with messaging using *openlog*(3) system call. The *logger*(1) before version 2.26 used openlog, and hence was unable to detected loss of messages sent to Unix sockets.
Print errors about Unix socket connections. The _mode_ can be a value of *off*, *on*, or *auto*. When the mode is *auto*, then *logger* will detect if the init process is *systemd*(1), and if so assumption is made _/dev/log_ can be used early at boot. Other init systems lack of _/dev/log_ will not cause errors that is identical with messaging using *openlog*(3) system call. The *logger*(1) before version 2.26 used *openlog*(3), and hence was unable to detected loss of messages sent to Unix sockets.
+
The default mode is *auto*. When errors are not enabled lost messages are not communicated and will result to successful exit status of *logger*(1) invocation.

2
misc-utils/lsblk.8.adoc

@ -115,7 +115,7 @@ Specifies output width as a number of characters. The default is the number of t
Sort output lines by _column_. This option enables *--list* output format by default. It is possible to use the option *--tree* to force tree-like output and than the tree branches are sorted by the _column_.
*-y*, *--shell*::
The column name will be modified to contain only characters allowed for shell variable identifiers, for example, MIN_IO and FSUSE_PCT instead of MIN-IO and FSUSE%. This is usable, for example, with *--pairs*. Note that this feature has been automatically enabled for *--pairs* in version 2.37, but due to compatibility issues, now its necessary to request this behavior by *--shell*.
The column name will be modified to contain only characters allowed for shell variable identifiers, for example, MIN_IO and FSUSE_PCT instead of MIN-IO and FSUSE%. This is usable, for example, with *--pairs*. Note that this feature has been automatically enabled for *--pairs* in version 2.37, but due to compatibility issues, now it's necessary to request this behavior by *--shell*.
*-z*, *--zoned*::
Print the zone related information for each device.

4
sys-utils/flock.1.adoc

@ -108,10 +108,10 @@ Grab the exclusive lock "local-lock-file" before running echo with 'a b c'.
The form is convenient inside shell scripts. The mode used to open the file doesn't matter to *flock*; using _>_ or _>>_ allows the lockfile to be created if it does not already exist, however, write permission is required. Using _<_ requires that the file already exists but only read permission is required.
[ "$\{FLOCKER}" != "$0" ] && exec env FLOCKER="$0" flock -en "$0" "$0" "$@" || : ::
This is useful boilerplate code for shell scripts. Put it at the top of the shell script you want to lock and it'll automatically lock itself on the first run. If the env var *$FLOCKER* is not set to the shell script that is being run, then execute *flock* and grab an exclusive non-blocking lock (using the script itself as the lock file) before re-execing itself with the right arguments. It also sets the FLOCKER env var to the right value so it doesn't run again.
This is useful boilerplate code for shell scripts. Put it at the top of the shell script you want to lock and it'll automatically lock itself on the first run. If the environment variable *$FLOCKER* is not set to the shell script that is being run, then execute *flock* and grab an exclusive non-blocking lock (using the script itself as the lock file) before re-execing itself with the right arguments. It also sets the *FLOCKER* environment variable to the right value so it doesn't run again.
shell> exec 4<>/var/lock/mylockfile; shell> flock -n 4::
This form is convenient for locking a file without spawning a subprocess. The shell opens the lock file for reading and writing as file descriptor 4, then flock is used to lock the descriptor.
This form is convenient for locking a file without spawning a subprocess. The shell opens the lock file for reading and writing as file descriptor 4, then *flock* is used to lock the descriptor.
== AUTHORS

4
sys-utils/lscpu.1.adoc

@ -44,9 +44,9 @@ Display details about CPU caches. For details about available information see *-
+
If the _list_ argument is omitted, all columns for which data is available are included in the command output.
+
When specifying the _list_ argument, the string of option, equal sign (=), and _list_ must not contain any blanks or other whitespace. Examples: '*-C=NAME,ONE-SIZE*' or '*--caches=NAME,ONE-SIZE*'.
When specifying the _list_ argument, the string of option, equal sign (=), and _list_ must not contain any blanks or other whitespace. Examples: *-C=NAME,ONE-SIZE* or *--caches=NAME,ONE-SIZE*.
+
The default list of columns may be extended if list is specified in the format +list (e.g., lscpu -C=+ALLOC-POLICY).
The default list of columns may be extended if list is specified in the format +list (e.g., **lscpu -C=+ALLOC-POLICY**).
*-c*, *--offline*::
Limit the output to offline CPUs. This option may only be specified together with option *-e* or *-p*.

2
sys-utils/lsmem.1.adoc

@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ lsmem - list the ranges of available memory with their online status
The *lsmem* command lists the ranges of available memory with their online status. The listed memory blocks correspond to the memory block representation in sysfs. The command also shows the memory block size and the amount of memory in online and offline state.
The default output compatible with original implementation from s390-tools, but it's strongly recommended to avoid using default outputs in your scripts. Always explicitly define expected columns by using the *--output* option together with a columns list in environments where a stable output is required.
The default output is compatible with original implementation from s390-tools, but it's strongly recommended to avoid using default outputs in your scripts. Always explicitly define expected columns by using the *--output* option together with a columns list in environments where a stable output is required.
The *lsmem* command lists a new memory range always when the current memory block distinguish from the previous block by some output column. This default behavior is possible to override by the *--split* option (e.g., *lsmem --split=ZONES*). The special word "none" may be used to ignore all differences between memory blocks and to create as large as possible continuous ranges. The opposite semantic is *--all* to list individual memory blocks.

5
sys-utils/lsns.8.adoc

@ -64,8 +64,7 @@ Do not truncate text in columns.
Do not use multi-line text in columns.
*-T*, *--tree* _rel_::
Use tree-like output format.
If *process* is given as _rel_, print process tree(s) in each name space. This is default when *--tree* is not specified. If *parent* is given, print tree(s) constructed by the parent/child relationship. If *owner* is given, print tree(s) constructed by the owner/owned relationship. *owner* is used as default when _rel_ is omitted.
Use tree-like output format. If *process* is given as _rel_, print process tree(s) in each name space. This is default when *--tree* is not specified. If *parent* is given, print tree(s) constructed by the parent/child relationship. If *owner* is given, print tree(s) constructed by the owner/owned relationship. *owner* is used as default when _rel_ is omitted.
include::man-common/help-version.adoc[]
@ -79,7 +78,7 @@ mailto:kzak@redhat.com[Karel Zak]
*unshare*(1),
*clone*(2),
*namespaces*(7),
*ioctl_ns(2)*
*ioctl_ns*(2)
include::man-common/bugreports.adoc[]

36
sys-utils/mount.8.adoc

@ -72,13 +72,13 @@ This tells the kernel to attach the filesystem found on _device_ (which is of ty
If only the directory or the device is given, for example:
____
*mount /dir*
*mount* _/dir_
____
then *mount* looks for a mountpoint (and if not found then for a device) in the _/etc/fstab_ file. It's possible to use the *--target* or *--source* options to avoid ambiguous interpretation of the given argument. For example:
____
*mount --target /mountpoint*
*mount --target* _/mountpoint_
____
The same filesystem may be mounted more than once, and in some cases (e.g., network filesystems) the same filesystem may be mounted on the same mountpoint multiple times. The *mount* command does not implement any policy to control this behavior. All behavior is controlled by the kernel and it is usually specific to the filesystem driver. The exception is *--all*, in this case already mounted filesystems are ignored (see *--all* below for more details).
@ -112,10 +112,10 @@ Filesystem universally unique identifier. The format of the UUID is usually a se
Note that *mount* uses UUIDs as strings. The UUIDs from the command line or from *fstab*(5) are not converted to internal binary representation. The string representation of the UUID should be based on lower case characters.
PARTLABEL=__label__::
Human readable partition identifier. This identifier is independent on filesystem and does not change by mkfs or mkswap operations. It's supported for example for GUID Partition Tables (GPT).
Human readable partition identifier. This identifier is independent on filesystem and does not change by *mkfs* or *mkswap* operations. It's supported for example for GUID Partition Tables (GPT).
PARTUUID=__uuid__::
Partition universally unique identifier. This identifier is independent on filesystem and does not change by mkfs or mkswap operations. It's supported for example for GUID Partition Tables (GPT).
Partition universally unique identifier. This identifier is independent on filesystem and does not change by *mkfs* or *mkswap* operations. It's supported for example for GUID Partition Tables (GPT).
ID=__id__::
Hardware block device ID as generated by udevd. This identifier is usually based on WWN (unique storage identifier) and assigned by the hardware manufacturer. See *ls /dev/disk/by-id* for more details, this directory and running udevd is required. This identifier is not recommended for generic use as the identifier is not strictly defined and it depends on udev, udev rules and hardware.
@ -149,7 +149,7 @@ If no arguments are given to *mount*, the list of mounted filesystems is printed
If you want to override mount options from _/etc/fstab_, you have to use the *-o* option:
____
*mount* __device__****|__dir__ *-o* _options_
*mount* __device__|__dir__ *-o* _options_
____
and then the mount options from the command line will be appended to the list of options from _/etc/fstab_. This default behaviour can be changed using the *--options-mode* command-line option. The usual behavior is that the last option wins if there are conflicting ones.
@ -236,7 +236,7 @@ Note that a read-only bind will create a read-only mountpoint (VFS entry), but t
It's also possible to change nosuid, nodev, noexec, noatime, nodiratime, relatime and nosymfollow VFS entry flags via a "remount,bind" operation. The other flags (for example filesystem-specific flags) are silently ignored. It's impossible to change mount options recursively (for example with *-o rbind,ro*).
Since util-linux 2.31, *mount* ignores the *bind* flag from _/etc/fstab_ on a *remount* operation (if "-o remount" is specified on command line). This is necessary to fully control mount options on remount by command line. In previous versions the bind flag has been always applied and it was impossible to re-define mount options without interaction with the bind semantic. This *mount* behavior does not affect situations when "remount,bind" is specified in the _/etc/fstab_ file.
Since util-linux 2.31, *mount* ignores the *bind* flag from _/etc/fstab_ on a *remount* operation (if *-o remount* is specified on command line). This is necessary to fully control mount options on remount by command line. In previous versions the bind flag has been always applied and it was impossible to re-define mount options without interaction with the bind semantic. This *mount* behavior does not affect situations when "remount,bind" is specified in the _/etc/fstab_ file.
=== The move operation
@ -272,7 +272,7 @@ mount --make-rprivate mountpoint
mount --make-runbindable mountpoint
....
*mount*(8) *does not read* *fstab*(5) when a *--make-** operation is requested. All necessary information has to be specified on the command line.
*mount* *does not read* *fstab*(5) when a *--make-** operation is requested. All necessary information has to be specified on the command line.
Note that the Linux kernel does not allow changing multiple propagation flags with a single *mount*(2) system call, and the flags cannot be mixed with other mount options and operations.
@ -346,7 +346,7 @@ Mount without writing in _/etc/mtab_. This is necessary for example when _/etc_
*-N*, *--namespace* _ns_::
Perform the mount operation in the mount namespace specified by _ns_. _ns_ is either PID of process running in that namespace or special file representing that namespace.
+
*mount* switches to the mount namespace when it reads _/etc/fstab_, writes _/etc/mtab: (or writes to _/run/mount_) and calls the *mount*(2) system call, otherwise it runs in the original mount namespace. This means that the target namespace does not have to contain any libraries or other requirements necessary to execute the *mount*(2) call.
*mount* switches to the mount namespace when it reads _/etc/fstab_, writes _/etc/mtab: (or writes to _/run/mount_) and calls *mount*(2), otherwise it runs in the original mount namespace. This means that the target namespace does not have to contain any libraries or other requirements necessary to execute the *mount*(2) call.
+
See *mount_namespaces*(7) for more information.
@ -376,7 +376,7 @@ For more details, see the *FILESYSTEM-INDEPENDENT MOUNT OPTIONS* and *FILESYSTEM
Controls how to combine options from _fstab_/_mtab_ with options from the command line. _mode_ can be one of *ignore*, *append*, *prepend* or *replace*. For example, *append* means that options from _fstab_ are appended to options from the command line. The default value is *prepend* -- it means command line options are evaluated after _fstab_ options. Note that the last option wins if there are conflicting ones.
*--options-source* _source_::
Source of default options. _source_ is a comma-separated list of *fstab*, *mtab* and *disable*. *disable* disables *fstab* and *mtab* and disables *--options-source-force*. The default value is *fstab,mtab*.
Source of default options. _source_ is a comma-separated list of *fstab*, *mtab* and *disable*. *disable* disables *fstab* and *mtab* and enables *--options-source-force*. The default value is *fstab,mtab*.
*--options-source-force*::
Use options from _fstab_/_mtab_ even if both _device_ and _dir_ are specified.
@ -510,7 +510,7 @@ Do not update directory inode access times on this filesystem. (This option is i
All directory updates within the filesystem should be done synchronously. This affects the following system calls: *creat*(2), *link*(2), *unlink*(2), *symlink*(2), *mkdir*(2), *rmdir*(2), *mknod*(2) and *rename*(2).
*exec*::
Permit execution of binaries.
Permit execution of binaries and other executable files.
*noexec*::
Do not permit direct execution of any binaries on the mounted filesystem.
@ -589,7 +589,7 @@ The remount functionality follows the standard way the *mount* command works wit
+
*mount -o remount,rw /dev/foo /dir*
+
After this call all old mount options are replaced and arbitrary stuff from _fstab_ (or _mtab_) is ignored, except the loop= option which is internally generated and maintained by the mount command.
After this call all old mount options are replaced and arbitrary stuff from _fstab_ (or _mtab_) is ignored, except the *loop=* option which is internally generated and maintained by the *mount* command.
+
*mount -o remount,rw /dir*
+
@ -599,7 +599,7 @@ After this call, *mount* reads _fstab_ and merges these options with the options
+
*mount --all -o remount,ro -t vfat*
+
remounts all already mounted vfat filesystems in read-only mode. Each of the filesystems is remounted by *mount -o remount,ro /dir* semantic. This means the *mount* command reads _fstab_ or _mtab_ and merges these options with the options from the command line.
remounts all already mounted vfat filesystems in read-only mode. Each of the filesystems is remounted by *mount -o remount,ro* _/dir_ semantic. This means the *mount* command reads _fstab_ or _mtab_ and merges these options with the options from the command line.
*ro*::
Mount the filesystem read-only.
@ -628,7 +628,7 @@ The same as *X-** options, but stored permanently in user space. This means the
Note that before util-linux v2.30 the x-* options have not been maintained by libmount and stored in user space (functionality was the same as for X-* now), but due to the growing number of use-cases (in initrd, systemd etc.) the functionality has been extended to keep existing _fstab_ configurations usable without a change.
*X-mount.mkdir*[=_mode_]::
Allow to make a target directory (mountpoint) if it does not exist yet. The optional argument _mode_ specifies the filesystem access mode used for *mkdir*(2) in octal notation. The default mode is 0755. This functionality is supported only for root users or when mount executed without suid permissions. The option is also supported as x-mount.mkdir, but this notation is deprecated since v2.30. See also *--mkdir* command line option.
Allow to make a target directory (mountpoint) if it does not exist yet. The optional argument _mode_ specifies the filesystem access mode used for *mkdir*(2) in octal notation. The default mode is 0755. This functionality is supported only for root users or when *mount* is executed without suid permissions. The option is also supported as *x-mount.mkdir*, but this notation is deprecated since v2.30. See also *--mkdir* command line option.
**X-mount.subdir=**__directory__::
Allow mounting sub-directory from a filesystem instead of the root directory. For now, this feature is implemented by temporary filesystem root directory mount in unshared namespace and then bind the sub-directory to the final mount point and umount the root of the filesystem. The sub-directory mount shows up atomically for the rest of the system although it is implemented by multiple *mount*(2) syscalls. This feature is EXPERIMENTAL.
@ -793,7 +793,7 @@ Sets the codepage for converting to shortname characters on FAT and VFAT filesys
This option is obsolete and may fail or be ignored.
**cvf_format=**__module__::
Forces the driver to use the CVF (Compressed Volume File) module cvf__module_ instead of auto-detection. If the kernel supports kmod, the cvf_format=xxx option also controls on-demand CVF module loading. This option is obsolete.
Forces the driver to use the CVF (Compressed Volume File) module cvf___module__ instead of auto-detection. If the kernel supports *kmod*, the **cvf_format=**__xxx__ option also controls on-demand CVF module loading. This option is obsolete.
**cvf_option=**__option__::
Option passed to the CVF module. This option is obsolete.
@ -969,7 +969,7 @@ See mount options for fat. If the _msdos_ filesystem detects an inconsistency, i
=== Mount options for ncpfs
Just like _nfs_, the _ncpfs_ implementation expects a binary argument (a _struct ncp_mount_data_) to the mount system call. This argument is constructed by *ncpmount*(8) and the current version of *mount* (2.12) does not know anything about ncpfs.
Just like _nfs_, the _ncpfs_ implementation expects a binary argument (a _struct ncp_mount_data_) to the *mount*(2) system call. This argument is constructed by *ncpmount*(8) and the current version of *mount* (2.12) does not know anything about ncpfs.
=== Mount options for ntfs
@ -1066,7 +1066,7 @@ The encoded overlay file handle includes;;
* Underlying filesystem encoding of underlying inode
+
This encoding format is identical to the encoding format file handles that are stored in extended attribute "{**trusted**|**user**}.overlay.origin". When decoding an overlay file handle, the following steps are followed;;
This encoding format is identical to the encoding format of file handles that are stored in extended attribute "{**trusted**|**user**}.overlay.origin". When decoding an overlay file handle, the following steps are followed;;
* Find underlying layer by UUID and path type information.
* Decode the underlying filesystem file handle to underlying dentry.
@ -1326,7 +1326,7 @@ For filesystems created by NeXTStep (on NeXT station) (currently read only).
For NextStep CDROMs (block_size == 2048), read-only.
*openstep*;;
For filesystems created by OpenStep (currently read only). The same filesystem type is also used by Mac OS X.
For filesystems created by OpenStep (currently read only). The same filesystem type is also used by macOS.
**onerror=**__value__::
Set behavior on error:
@ -1385,7 +1385,7 @@ Set the owner and group and mode of the file _devices_ (default: uid=gid=0, mode
== DM-VERITY SUPPORT
The device-mapper verity target provides read-only transparent integrity checking of block devices using kernel crypto API. The *mount* command can open the dm-verity device and do the integrity verification before on the device filesystem is mounted. Requires libcryptsetup with in libmount (optionally via *dlopen*(3)). If libcryptsetup supports extracting the root hash of an already mounted device, existing devices will be automatically reused in case of a match. Mount options for dm-verity:
The device-mapper verity target provides read-only transparent integrity checking of block devices using kernel crypto API. The *mount* command can open the dm-verity device and do the integrity verification before the device filesystem is mounted. Requires libcryptsetup with in libmount (optionally via *dlopen*(3)). If libcryptsetup supports extracting the root hash of an already mounted device, existing devices will be automatically reused in case of a match. Mount options for dm-verity:
**verity.hashdevice=**__path__::
Path to the hash tree device associated with the source volume to pass to dm-verity.

8
sys-utils/rfkill.8.adoc

@ -49,16 +49,16 @@ Display help text and exit.
*event*::
Listen for rfkill events and display them on stdout.
*list* [__id__|_type_ ...]::
*list* [__id__|__type__ ...]::
List the current state of all available devices. The command output format is deprecated, see the *DESCRIPTION* section. It is a good idea to check with *list* command _id_ or _type_ scope is appropriate before setting *block* or *unblock*. Special _all_ type string will match everything. Use of multiple _ID_ or _type_ arguments is supported.
**block id**|*type* [...]::
**block** __id__|__type__ [...]::
Disable the corresponding device.
**unblock id**|*type* [...]::
**unblock** __id__|__type__ [...]::
Enable the corresponding device. If the device is hard-blocked, for example via a hardware switch, it will remain unavailable though it is now soft-unblocked.
**toggle id**|*type* [...]::
**toggle** __id__|__type__ [...]::
Enable or disable the corresponding device.
== EXAMPLE

2
sys-utils/rtcwake.8.adoc

@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ On some systems, this can also be used like *nvram-wakeup*, waking from states l
Note that alarm functionality depends on hardware; not every RTC is able to setup an alarm up to 24 hours in the future.
The suspend setup may be interrupted by active hardware; for example wireless USB input devices that continue to send events for some fraction of a second after the return key is pressed. *rtcwake* tries to avoid this problem and it waits to terminal to settle down before entering a system sleep.
The suspend setup may be interrupted by active hardware; for example wireless USB input devices that continue to send events for some fraction of a second after the return key is pressed. *rtcwake* tries to avoid this problem and it waits to the terminal to settle down before entering a system sleep.
== OPTIONS

4
sys-utils/swapon.8.adoc

@ -102,7 +102,7 @@ system has insufficient memory to stop swapping (OOM)
*swapoff*(2) syscall failed for another reason
*8*::
non-swapoff syscall system error (out of memory, ...)
non-*swapoff*(2) syscall system error (out of memory, ...)
*16*::
usage or syntax error
@ -147,7 +147,7 @@ The most portable solution to create a swap file is to use *dd*(1) and _/dev/zer
=== Btrfs
Swap files on Btrfs are supported since Linux 5.0 on files with nocow attribute. See the *btrfs*(5) manual page for more details.
Swap files on Btrfs are supported since Linux 5.0 on files with *nocow* attribute. See the *btrfs*(5) manual page for more details.
=== NFS

8
sys-utils/umount.8.adoc

@ -119,13 +119,13 @@ Normally, only the superuser can umount filesystems. However, when _fstab_ conta
Since version 2.34 the *umount* command can be used to perform umount operation also for fuse filesystems if kernel mount table contains user's ID. In this case _fstab_ *user=* mount option is not required.
Since version 2.35 *umount* command does not exit when user permissions are inadequate by internal libmount security rules. It drops suid permissions and continue as regular non-root user. This can be used to support use-cases where root permissions are not necessary (e.g., fuse filesystems, user namespaces, etc).
Since version 2.35 *umount* command does not exit when user permissions are inadequate by internal *libmount* security rules. It drops suid permissions and continue as regular non-root user. This can be used to support use-cases where root permissions are not necessary (e.g., fuse filesystems, user namespaces, etc).
== LOOP DEVICE
The *umount* command will automatically detach loop device previously initialized by *mount*(8) command independently of _/etc/mtab_.
In this case the device is initialized with "autoclear" flag (see *losetup*(8) output for more details), otherwise it's necessary to use the option *--detach-loop* or call *losetup -d <device>*. The autoclear feature is supported since Linux 2.6.25.
In this case the device is initialized with "autoclear" flag (see *losetup*(8) output for more details), otherwise it's necessary to use the option *--detach-loop* or call *losetup -d* _device_. The autoclear feature is supported since Linux 2.6.25.
== EXTERNAL HELPERS
@ -143,9 +143,9 @@ ____
A **uhelper=**__something__ marker (unprivileged helper) can appear in the _/etc/mtab_ file when ordinary users need to be able to unmount a mountpoint that is not defined in _/etc/fstab_ (for example for a device that was mounted by *udisks*(1)).
A **helper=**__type__ marker in the mtab file will redirect all unmount requests to the **/sbin/umount.**__type__ helper independently of UID.
A **helper=**__type__ marker in the _mtab_ file will redirect all unmount requests to the **/sbin/umount.**__type__ helper independently of UID.
Note that _/etc/mtab_ is currently deprecated and *helper=* and other userspace mount options are maintained by libmount.
Note that _/etc/mtab_ is currently deprecated and *helper=* and other userspace mount options are maintained by *libmount*.
== ENVIRONMENT

4
sys-utils/unshare.1.adoc

@ -141,11 +141,11 @@ include::man-common/help-version.adoc[]
== NOTES
The proc and sysfs filesystems mounting as root in a user namespace have to be restricted so that a less privileged user can not get more access to sensitive files that a more privileged user made unavailable. In short the rule for proc and sysfs is as close to a bind mount as possible.
The proc and sysfs filesystems mounting as root in a user namespace have to be restricted so that a less privileged user cannot get more access to sensitive files that a more privileged user made unavailable. In short the rule for proc and sysfs is as close to a bind mount as possible.
== EXAMPLES
The following command creates a PID namespace, using *--fork* to ensure that the executed command is performed in a child process that (being the first process in the namespace) has PID 1. The *--mount-proc* option ensures that a new mount namespace is also simultaneously created and that a new *proc*(5) filesystem is mounted that contains information corresponding to the new PID namespace. When the *readlink* command terminates, the new namespaces are automatically torn down.
The following command creates a PID namespace, using *--fork* to ensure that the executed command is performed in a child process that (being the first process in the namespace) has PID 1. The *--mount-proc* option ensures that a new mount namespace is also simultaneously created and that a new *proc*(5) filesystem is mounted that contains information corresponding to the new PID namespace. When the *readlink*(1) command terminates, the new namespaces are automatically torn down.
....
# unshare --fork --pid --mount-proc readlink /proc/self

12
term-utils/agetty.8.adoc

@ -76,10 +76,10 @@ If the *--nohostname* option is given, then an *-H* option is added to the */bin
See *--login-options*.
*-f*, *--issue-file* _path_::
Specifies a ":" delimited list of files and directories to be displayed instead of _/etc/issue_ (or other). All specified files and directories are displayed, missing or empty files are silently ignored. If the specified path is a directory then display all files with .issue file extension in version-sort order from the directory. This allows custom messages to be displayed on different terminals. The *--noissue* option will override this option.
Specifies a ":" delimited list of files and directories to be displayed instead of _/etc/issue_ (or other). All specified files and directories are displayed, missing or empty files are silently ignored. If the specified path is a directory then display all files with __.issue__ file extension in version-sort order from the directory. This allows custom messages to be displayed on different terminals. The *--noissue* option will override this option.
*--show-issue*::
Display the current issue file (or other) on the current terminal and exit. Use this option to review the current setting, it is not designed for any other purpose. Note that output may use some default or incomplete information as proper output depends on terminal and agetty command line.
Display the current issue file (or other) on the current terminal and exit. Use this option to review the current setting, it is not designed for any other purpose. Note that output may use some default or incomplete information as proper output depends on terminal and *agetty* command line.
*-h, --flow-control*::
Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control. It is left up to the application to disable software (XON/XOFF) flow protocol where appropriate.
@ -100,7 +100,7 @@ Do not clear the screen before prompting for the login name. By default the scre
Invoke the specified _login_program_ instead of /bin/login. This allows the use of a non-standard login program. Such a program could, for example, ask for a dial-up password or use a different password file. See *--login-options*.
*-L*, *--local-line*[=__mode__]::
Control the CLOCAL line flag. The optional _mode_ argument is 'auto', 'always' or 'never'. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, then the default is 'always'. If the *--local-line* option is not given at all, then the default is 'auto'.
Control the CLOCAL line flag. The optional _mode_ argument is *auto*, *always* or *never*. If the _mode_ argument is omitted, then the default is *always*. If the *--local-line* option is not given at all, then the default is *auto*.
_always_;;
Forces the line to be a local line with no need for carrier detect. This can be useful when you have a locally attached terminal where the serial line does not set the carrier-detect signal.
@ -178,7 +178,7 @@ Sleep seconds before open tty.
Run login with this priority.
*--reload*::
Ask all running agetty instances to reload and update their displayed prompts, if the user has not yet commenced logging in. After doing so the command will exit. This feature might be unsupported on systems without Linux *inotify*(7).
Ask all running *agetty* instances to reload and update their displayed prompts, if the user has not yet commenced logging in. After doing so the command will exit. This feature might be unsupported on systems without Linux *inotify*(7).
include::man-common/help-version.adoc[]
@ -212,7 +212,7 @@ ____
== SECURITY NOTICE
If you use the *--login-program* and *--login-options* options, be aware that a malicious user may try to enter lognames with embedded options, which then get passed to the used login program. Agetty does check for a leading "-" and makes sure the logname gets passed as one parameter (so embedded spaces will not create yet another parameter), but depending on how the login binary parses the command line that might not be sufficient. Check that the used login program cannot be abused this way.
If you use the *--login-program* and *--login-options* options, be aware that a malicious user may try to enter lognames with embedded options, which then get passed to the used login program. *agetty* does check for a leading "-" and makes sure the logname gets passed as one parameter (so embedded spaces will not create yet another parameter), but depending on how the login binary parses the command line that might not be sufficient. Check that the used login program cannot be abused this way.
Some programs use "--" to indicate that the rest of the command line should not be interpreted as options. Use this feature if available by passing "--" before the username gets passed by \u.
@ -231,7 +231,7 @@ It is possible to review the current issue file by *agetty --show-issue* on the
The issue files may contain certain escape codes to display the system name, date, time et cetera. All escape codes consist of a backslash (\) immediately followed by one of the characters listed below.
4 or 4{_interface_}::
Insert the IPv4 address of the specified network interface (for example: \4\{eth0}). If the _interface_ argument is not specified, then select the first fully configured (UP, non-LOCALBACK, RUNNING) interface. If not any configured interface is found, fall back to the IP address of the machine's hostname.
Insert the IPv4 address of the specified network interface (for example: \4\{eth0}). If the _interface_ argument is not specified, then select the first fully configured (UP, non-LOCALBACK, RUNNING) interface. If no configured interface is found, fall back to the IP address of the machine's hostname.
6 or 6{_interface_}::
The same as \4 but for IPv6.

4
term-utils/script.1.adoc

@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ script - make typescript of terminal session
*script* makes a typescript of everything on your terminal session. The terminal data are stored in raw form to the log file and information about timing to another (optional) structured log file. The timing log file is necessary to replay the session later by *scriptreplay*(1) and to store additional information about the session.
Since version 2.35, *script* supports multiple streams and allows the logging of input and output to separate files or all the one file. This version also supports new timing file which records additional information. The command *scriptreplay --summary* then provides all the information.
Since version 2.35, *script* supports multiple streams and allows the logging of input and output to separate files or all the one file. This version also supports a new timing file which records additional information. The command *scriptreplay --summary* then provides all the information.
If the argument _file_ or option *--log-out* _file_ is given, *script* saves the dialogue in this _file_. If no filename is given, the dialogue is saved in the file _typescript_.
@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ Return the exit status of the child process. Uses the same format as bash termin
//TRANSLATORS: Keep {plus} untranslated.
*-f*, *--flush*::
Flush output after each write. This is nice for telecooperation: one person does *mkfifo foo; script -f foo*, and another can supervise in real-time what is being done using *cat foo*. Note that flush has an impact on performance; it's possible to use *SIGUSR1* to flush logs on demand.
Flush output after each write. This is nice for telecooperation: one person does *mkfifo* _foo_; *script -f* _foo_, and another can supervise in real-time what is being done using *cat* _foo_. Note that flush has an impact on performance; it's possible to use *SIGUSR1* to flush logs on demand.
*--force*::
Allow the default output file _typescript_ to be a hard or symbolic link. The command will follow a symbolic link.

4
term-utils/scriptreplay.1.adoc

@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ The timing information is what *script*(1) outputs to file specified by *--log-t
By default, the typescript to display is assumed to be named _typescript_, but other filenames may be specified, as the second parameter or with option *--log-out*.
If the third parameter or *--divisor* is specified, it is used as a speed-up multiplier. For example, a speed-up of 2 makes *scriptreplay* go twice as fast, and a speed-up of 0.1 makes it go ten times slower than the original session.
If the third parameter or *--divisor* is specified, it is used as a speed-up multiplier. For example, a speed-up of 2 makes *scriptreplay* go twice as fast, and a speed-down of 0.1 makes it go ten times slower than the original session.
== OPTIONS
@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ Speed up the replay displaying this _number_ of times. The argument is a floatin
Set the maximum delay between updates to _number_ of seconds. The argument is a floating-point number. This can be used to avoid long pauses in the typescript replay.
*--summary*::
Display details about the session recorded in the specified timing file and exit. The session has to be recorded using _advanced_ format (see *script*(1)) option *--logging-format* for more details).
Display details about the session recorded in the specified timing file and exit. The session has to be recorded using _advanced_ format (see *script*(1) option *--logging-format* for more details).
*-x*, *--stream* _type_::
Forces *scriptreplay* to print only the specified stream. The supported stream types are _in_, _out_, _signal_, or _info_. This option is recommended for multi-stream logs (e.g., *--log-io*) in order to print only specified data.

4
text-utils/colcrt.1.adoc

@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ colcrt - filter nroff output for CRT previewing
Suppress all underlining. This option is especially useful for previewing _allboxed_ tables from *tbl*(1).
*-2*, *--half-lines*::
Causes all half-lines to be printed, effectively double spacing the output. Normally, a minimal space output format is used which will suppress empty lines. The program never suppresses two consecutive empty lines, however. The *-2* option is useful for sending output to the line printer when the output contains superscripts and subscripts which would otherwise be invisible.
Causes all half-lines to be printed, effectively double spacing the output. Normally, a minimal space output format is used which will suppress empty lines. The program never suppresses two consecutive empty lines, however. The *-2* option is useful for sending output to the line printer when the output contains superscripts and subscripts which would otherwise be partially invisible.
include::man-common/help-version.adoc[]
@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ The *colcrt* command appeared in 3.0BSD.
== BUGS
Should fold underlines onto blanks even with the *'-'* option so that a true underline character would show.
Should fold underlines onto blanks even with the *-* option so that a true underline character would show.
Can't back up more than 102 lines.

8
text-utils/hexdump.1.adoc

@ -65,7 +65,7 @@ _One-byte octal display_. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by s
_One-byte character display_. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, three-column, space-filled characters of input data per line.
*-C*, *--canonical*::
_Canonical hex{plus}ASCII display_. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, two-column, hexadecimal bytes, followed by the same sixteen bytes in *%{underscore}p* format enclosed in '*|*' characters. Invoking the program as *hd* implies this option.
_Canonical hex{plus}ASCII display_. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, two-column, hexadecimal bytes, followed by the same sixteen bytes in *%{underscore}p* format enclosed in *|* characters. Invoking the program as *hd* implies this option.
//TRANSLATORS: Keep {plus} and {underscore} untranslated.
*-d*, *--two-bytes-decimal*::
@ -144,7 +144,7 @@ The *hexdump* utility also supports the following additional conversion strings.
Display the input offset, cumulative across input files, of the next byte to be displayed. The appended characters *d*, *o*, and *x* specify the display base as decimal, octal or hexadecimal respectively.
*_A[dox]*::
Identical to the *_a* conversion string except that it is only performed once, when all of the input data has been processed.
Almost identical to the *_a* conversion string except that it is only performed once, when all of the input data has been processed.
*_c*::
Output characters in the default character set. Non-printing characters are displayed in three-character, zero-padded octal, except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above), which are displayed as two-character strings.
@ -168,7 +168,7 @@ ____
=== Colors
When put at the end of a format specifier, hexdump highlights the respective string with the color specified. Conditions, if present, are evaluated prior to highlighting.
When put at the end of a format specifier, *hexdump* highlights the respective string with the color specified. Conditions, if present, are evaluated prior to highlighting.
*_L[color_unit_1,color_unit_2,...,color_unit_n]*
@ -183,7 +183,7 @@ Negate the condition. Please note that it only makes sense to negate a unit if b
One of the 8 basic shell colors.
*VALUE*::
A value to be matched specified in hexadecimal, or octal base, or as a string. Please note that the usual C escape sequences are not interpreted by hexdump inside the color_units.
A value to be matched specified in hexadecimal, or octal base, or as a string. Please note that the usual C escape sequences are not interpreted by *hexdump* inside the color_units.
*OFFSET*::
An offset or an offset range at which to check for a match. Please note that lone OFFSET_START uses the same value as END offset.

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