876 lines
32 KiB

// Please don't remove this comment as asciidoc behaves badly when
// the first non-empty line is ifdef/ifndef. The symptom is that
// without this comment the <git-diff-core> attribute conditionally
// defined below ends up being defined unconditionally.
// Last checked with asciidoc 7.0.2.
:git-diff-core: 1
Generate plain patches without any diffstats.
Generate patch (see section titled
<<generate_patch_text_with_p, "Generating patch text with -p">>).
"Generating patch text with -p").
This is the default.
Suppress all output from the diff machinery. Useful for
commands like `git show` that show the patch by default to
squelch their output, or to cancel the effect of options like
`--patch`, `--stat` earlier on the command line in an alias.
Specify diff format to be used for merge commits. Default is
{diff-merges-default} unless `--first-parent` is in use, in which case
`first-parent` is the default.
Disable output of diffs for merge commits. Useful to override
implied value.
This option makes diff output for merge commits to be shown in
the default format. `-m` will produce the output only if `-p`
is given as well. The default format could be changed using
`log.diffMerges` configuration parameter, which default value
is `separate`.
This option makes merge commits show the full diff with
respect to the first parent only.
This makes merge commits show the full diff with respect to
each of the parents. Separate log entry and diff is generated
for each parent.
With this option, two-parent merge commits are remerged to
create a temporary tree object -- potentially containing files
with conflict markers and such. A diff is then shown between
that temporary tree and the actual merge commit.
The output emitted when this option is used is subject to change, and
so is its interaction with other options (unless explicitly
With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the
differences from each of the parents to the merge result
simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a
parent and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists
only files which were modified from all parents. `-c` implies
With this option the output produced by
`--diff-merges=combined` is further compressed by omitting
uninteresting hunks whose contents in the parents have only
two variants and the merge result picks one of them without
modification. `--cc` implies `-p`.
This flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits) to
list the name of the file from all parents. It thus only has
effect when `--diff-merges=[dense-]combined` is in use, and
is likely only useful if filename changes are detected (i.e.
when either rename or copy detection have been requested).
Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
the usual three.
Implies `--patch`.
Output to a specific file instead of stdout.
Specify the character used to indicate new, old or context
lines in the generated patch. Normally they are '+', '-' and
' ' respectively.
Generate the diff in raw format.
This is the default.
For each commit, show a summary of changes using the raw diff
format. See the "RAW OUTPUT FORMAT" section of
linkgit:git-diff[1]. This is different from showing the log
itself in raw format, which you can achieve with
Synonym for `-p --raw`.
Show the tree objects in the diff output.
Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make patches
easier to read. This is the default.
Disable the indent heuristic.
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
diff is produced.
Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.
This option may be specified more than once.
If a line exists in both the source and destination, exists only once,
and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts to prevent it from
appearing as a deletion or addition in the output. It uses the "patience
diff" algorithm internally.
Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
`default`, `myers`;;
The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
low-occurrence common elements".
For instance, if you configured the `diff.algorithm` variable to a
non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
have to use `--diff-algorithm=default` option.
Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
part. Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns
if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by
`<width>`. The width of the filename part can be limited by
giving another width `<name-width>` after a comma. The width
of the graph part can be limited by using
`--stat-graph-width=<width>` (affects all commands generating
a stat graph) or by setting `diff.statGraphWidth=<width>`
(does not affect `git format-patch`).
By giving a third parameter `<count>`, you can limit the
output to the first `<count>` lines, followed by `...` if
there are more.
These parameters can also be set individually with `--stat-width=<width>`,
`--stat-name-width=<name-width>` and `--stat-count=<count>`.
Output a condensed summary of extended header information such
as file creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l"
if it's a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding
or removing executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The
information is put between the filename part and the graph
part. Implies `--stat`.
Similar to `--stat`, but shows number of added and
deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
`0 0`.
Output only the last line of the `--stat` format containing total
number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
sub-directory. The behavior of `--dirstat` can be customized by
passing it a comma separated list of parameters.
The defaults are controlled by the `diff.dirstat` configuration
variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
The following parameters are available:
Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been
removed from the source, or added to the destination. This ignores
the amount of pure code movements within a file. In other words,
rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much as other changes.
This is the default behavior when no parameter is given.
Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff
analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For binary
files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive `--dirstat`
behavior than the `changes` behavior, but it does count rearranged
lines within a file as much as other changes. The resulting output
is consistent with what you get from the other `--*stat` options.
Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files changed.
Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat analysis. This is
the computationally cheapest `--dirstat` behavior, since it does
not have to look at the file contents at all.
Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as well.
Note that when using `cumulative`, the sum of the percentages
reported may exceed 100%. The default (non-cumulative) behavior can
be specified with the `noncumulative` parameter.
An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default).
Directories contributing less than this percentage of the changes
are not shown in the output.
Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed files,
and accumulating child directory counts in the parent directories:
Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative
Synonym for --dirstat=files,param1,param2...
Output a condensed summary of extended header information
such as creations, renames and mode changes.
Synonym for `-p --stat`.
Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.
Also, when `--raw` or `--numstat` has been given, do not munge
pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
When `--raw`, `--numstat`, `--name-only` or `--name-status` has been
given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath` (see
Show only names of changed files. The file names are often encoded in UTF-8.
For more information see the discussion about encoding in the linkgit:git-log[1]
manual page.
Show only names and status of changed files. See the description
of the `--diff-filter` option on what the status letters mean.
Just like `--name-only` the file names are often encoded in UTF-8.
Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
`--submodule=short` the 'short' format is used. This format just
shows the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the range.
When `--submodule` or `--submodule=log` is specified, the 'log'
format is used. This format lists the commits in the range like
linkgit:git-submodule[1] `summary` does. When `--submodule=diff`
is specified, the 'diff' format is used. This format shows an
inline diff of the changes in the submodule contents between the
commit range. Defaults to `diff.submodule` or the 'short' format
if the config option is unset.
Show colored diff.
`--color` (i.e. without '=<when>') is the same as `--color=always`.
'<when>' can be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto`.
It can be changed by the `color.ui` and `color.diff`
configuration settings.
Turn off colored diff.
This can be used to override configuration settings.
It is the same as `--color=never`.
Moved lines of code are colored differently.
It can be changed by the `diff.colorMoved` configuration setting.
The <mode> defaults to 'no' if the option is not given
and to 'zebra' if the option with no mode is given.
The mode must be one of:
Moved lines are not highlighted.
Is a synonym for `zebra`. This may change to a more sensible mode
in the future.
Any line that is added in one location and was removed
in another location will be colored with 'color.diff.newMoved'.
Similarly 'color.diff.oldMoved' will be used for removed lines
that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine
if a block of code was moved without permutation.
Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters
are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color.
Adjacent blocks cannot be told apart.
Blocks of moved text are detected as in 'blocks' mode. The blocks
are painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
'color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative'. The change between
the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.
Similar to 'zebra', but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
`dimmed_zebra` is a deprecated synonym.
Turn off move detection. This can be used to override configuration
settings. It is the same as `--color-moved=no`.
This configures how whitespace is ignored when performing the
move detection for `--color-moved`.
It can be set by the `diff.colorMovedWS` configuration setting.
These modes can be given as a comma separated list:
Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection.
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.
Initially ignore any whitespace in the move detection, then
group the moved code blocks only into a block if the change in
whitespace is the same per line. This is incompatible with the
other modes.
Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection. This can be
used to override configuration settings. It is the same as
Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words.
By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see
`--word-diff-regex` below. The <mode> defaults to 'plain', and
must be one of:
Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies `--color`.
Show words as `[-removed-]` and `{+added+}`. Makes no
attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in the input,
so the output may be ambiguous.
Use a special line-based format intended for script
consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
usual unified diff format, starting with a `+`/`-`/` `
character at the beginning of the line and extending to the
end of the line. Newlines in the input are represented by a
tilde `~` on a line of its own.
Disable word diff again.
Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.
Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering
runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies
`--word-diff` unless it was already enabled.
Every non-overlapping match of the
<regex> is considered a word. Anything between these matches is
considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
differences. You may want to append `|[^[:space:]]` to your regular
expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters.
A match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the
For example, `--word-diff-regex=.` will treat each character as a word
and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.
The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
linkgit:gitattributes[5] or linkgit:git-config[1]. Giving it explicitly
overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
override configuration settings.
Equivalent to `--word-diff=color` plus (if a regex was
specified) `--word-diff-regex=<regex>`.
Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
file gives the default to do so.
Whether to use empty blobs as rename source.
Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors.
What are considered whitespace errors is controlled by `core.whitespace`
configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces (including
lines that consist solely of whitespaces) and a space character
that is immediately followed by a tab character inside the
initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
with --exit-code.
Highlight whitespace errors in the `context`, `old` or `new`
lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by comma,
`none` resets previous values, `default` reset the list to
`new` and `all` is a shorthand for `old,new,context`. When
this option is not given, and the configuration variable
`diff.wsErrorHighlight` is not set, only whitespace errors in
`new` lines are highlighted. The whitespace errors are colored
with `color.diff.whitespace`.
Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index"
line when generating patch format output.
In addition to `--full-index`, output a binary diff that
can be applied with `git-apply`.
Implies `--patch`.
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
lines, show the shortest prefix that is at least '<n>'
hexdigits long that uniquely refers the object.
In diff-patch output format, `--full-index` takes higher
precedence, i.e. if `--full-index` is specified, full blob
names will be shown regardless of `--abbrev`.
Non default number of digits can be specified with `--abbrev=<n>`.
Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
create. This serves two purposes:
It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file
not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with a very
few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
everything new, and the number `m` controls this aspect of the -B
option (defaults to 60%). `-B/70%` specifies that less than 30% of the
original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).
When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the
source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that disappeared
as the source of a rename), and the number `n` controls this aspect of
the -B option (defaults to 50%). `-B20%` specifies that a change with
addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the file's size are
eligible for being picked up as a possible source of a rename to
another file.
Detect renames.
If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit.
For following files across renames while traversing history, see
If `n` is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
file's size). For example, `-M90%` means Git should consider a
delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file
hasn't changed. Without a `%` sign, the number is to be read as
a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., `-M5` becomes
0.5, and is thus the same as `-M50%`. Similarly, `-M05` is
the same as `-M5%`. To limit detection to exact renames, use
`-M100%`. The default similarity index is 50%.
Detect copies as well as renames. See also `--find-copies-harder`.
If `n` is specified, it has the same meaning as for `-M<n>`.
For performance reasons, by default, `-C` option finds copies only
if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
changeset. This flag makes the command
inspect unmodified files as candidates for the source of
copy. This is a very expensive operation for large
projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one
`-C` option has the same effect.
Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
the diff between the preimage and `/dev/null`. The resulting patch
is not meant to be applied with `patch` or `git apply`; this is
solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lacks
enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually,
hence the name of the option.
When used together with `-B`, omit also the preimage in the deletion part
of a delete/create pair.
The `-M` and `-C` options involve some preliminary steps that
can detect subsets of renames/copies cheaply, followed by an
exhaustive fallback portion that compares all remaining
unpaired destinations to all relevant sources. (For renames,
only remaining unpaired sources are relevant; for copies, all
original sources are relevant.) For N sources and
destinations, this exhaustive check is O(N^2). This option
prevents the exhaustive portion of rename/copy detection from
running if the number of source/destination files involved
exceeds the specified number. Defaults to diff.renameLimit.
Note that a value of 0 is treated as unlimited.
Select only files that are Added (`A`), Copied (`C`),
Deleted (`D`), Modified (`M`), Renamed (`R`), have their
type (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed (`T`),
are Unmerged (`U`), are
Unknown (`X`), or have had their pairing Broken (`B`).
Any combination of the filter characters (including none) can be used.
When `*` (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all
paths are selected if there is any file that matches
other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
`--diff-filter=ad` excludes added and deleted paths.
Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance, copied and
renamed entries cannot appear if detection for those types is disabled.
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
Intended for the scripter's use.
It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
block in the preimage back into `-S`, and keep going until you get the
very first version of the block.
Binary files are searched as well.
Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
lines that match <regex>.
To illustrate the difference between `-S<regex> --pickaxe-regex` and
`-G<regex>`, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
+ return frotz(nitfol, two->ptr, 1, 0);
- hit = frotz(nitfol, mf2.ptr, 1, 0);
While `git log -G"frotz\(nitfol"` will show this commit, `git log
-S"frotz\(nitfol" --pickaxe-regex` will not (because the number of
occurrences of that string did not change).
Unless `--text` is supplied patches of binary files without a textconv
filter will be ignored.
See the 'pickaxe' entry in linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
the specified object. Similar to `-S`, just the argument is different
in that it doesn't search for a specific string but for a specific
object id.
The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies the `-t` option in
`git-log` to also find trees.
When `-S` or `-G` finds a change, show all the changes in that
changeset, not just the files that contain the change
in <string>.
Treat the <string> given to `-S` as an extended POSIX regular
expression to match.
Control the order in which files appear in the output.
This overrides the `diff.orderFile` configuration variable
(see linkgit:git-config[1]). To cancel `diff.orderFile`,
use `-O/dev/null`.
The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns in
All files with pathnames that match the first pattern are output
first, all files with pathnames that match the second pattern (but not
the first) are output next, and so on.
All files with pathnames that do not match any pattern are output
last, as if there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end of the
If multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern
but no earlier patterns), their output order relative to each other is
the normal order.
<orderfile> is parsed as follows:
- Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as separators for
- Lines starting with a hash ("`#`") are ignored, so they can be used
for comments. Add a backslash ("`\`") to the beginning of the
pattern if it starts with a hash.
- Each other line contains a single pattern.
Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "`foo*bar`"
matches "`fooasdfbar`" and "`foo/bar/baz/asdf`" but not "`foobarx`".
Discard the files before the named <file> from the output
(i.e. 'skip to'), or move them to the end of the output
(i.e. 'rotate to'). These were invented primarily for use
of the `git difftool` command, and may not be very useful
Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
on-disk file to tree contents.
When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
to by giving a <path> as an argument.
`--no-relative` can be used to countermand both `diff.relative` config
option and previous `--relative`.
Treat all files as text.
Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
line has none.
Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.
Ignore changes whose all lines match <regex>. This option may
be specified more than once.
Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
Defaults to `diff.interHunkContext` or 0 if the config option
is unset.
Show whole function as context lines for each change.
The function names are determined in the same way as
`git diff` works out patch hunk headers (see 'Defining a
custom hunk-header' in linkgit:gitattributes[5]).
Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and
0 means no differences.
Disable all output of the program. Implies `--exit-code`.
Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
external diff driver with linkgit:gitattributes[5], you need
to use this option with linkgit:git-log[1] and friends.
Disallow external diff drivers.
Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run
when comparing binary files. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for
details. Because textconv filters are typically a one-way
conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human
consumption, but cannot be applied. For this reason, textconv
filters are enabled by default only for linkgit:git-diff[1] and
linkgit:git-log[1], but not for linkgit:git-format-patch[1] or
diff plumbing commands.
Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either contains
untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit recorded
in the superproject and can be used to override any settings of the
'ignore' option in linkgit:git-config[1] or linkgit:gitmodules[5]. When
"untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when they only
contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for modified
content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work tree of submodules,
only changes to the commits stored in the superproject are shown (this was
the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to submodules.
Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".
Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".
Do not show any source or destination prefix.
Use the default source and destination prefixes ("a/" and "b/").
This is usually the default already, but may be used to override
config such as `diff.noprefix`.
Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.
By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing
empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached".
This option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff"
and non-existent in "git diff --cached". This option could be
reverted with `--ita-visible-in-index`. Both options are
experimental and could be removed in future.
For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also