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git/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt

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PRETTY FORMATS
--------------
If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format
is not 'oneline', 'email' or 'raw', an additional line is
inserted before the 'Author:' line. This line begins with
"Merge: " and the hashes of ancestral commits are printed,
separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
necessarily be the list of the *direct* parent commits if you
have limited your view of history: for example, if you are
only interested in changes related to a certain directory or
file.
There are several built-in formats, and you can define
additional formats by setting a pretty.<name>
config option to either another format name, or a
'format:' string, as described below (see
linkgit:git-config[1]). Here are the details of the
built-in formats:
* 'oneline'
<hash> <title-line>
+
This is designed to be as compact as possible.
* 'short'
commit <hash>
Author: <author>
<title-line>
* 'medium'
commit <hash>
Author: <author>
Date: <author-date>
<title-line>
<full-commit-message>
* 'full'
commit <hash>
Author: <author>
Commit: <committer>
<title-line>
<full-commit-message>
* 'fuller'
commit <hash>
Author: <author>
AuthorDate: <author-date>
Commit: <committer>
CommitDate: <committer-date>
<title-line>
<full-commit-message>
* 'reference'
<abbrev-hash> (<title-line>, <short-author-date>)
+
This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit message and
is the same as `--pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'`. By default,
the date is formatted with `--date=short` unless another `--date` option
is explicitly specified. As with any `format:` with format
placeholders, its output is not affected by other options like
`--decorate` and `--walk-reflogs`.
* 'email'
From <hash> <date>
From: <author>
Date: <author-date>
Subject: [PATCH] <title-line>
<full-commit-message>
* 'mboxrd'
+
Like 'email', but lines in the commit message starting with "From "
(preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted with ">" so they aren't
confused as starting a new commit.
* 'raw'
+
The 'raw' format shows the entire commit exactly as
stored in the commit object. Notably, the hashes are
displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
--no-abbrev are used, and 'parents' information show the
true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
simplification into account. Note that this format affects the way
commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown e.g. with
`git log --raw`. To get full object names in a raw diff format,
use `--no-abbrev`.
* 'format:<format-string>'
+
The 'format:<format-string>' format allows you to specify which information
you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format,
with the notable exception that you get a newline with '%n'
instead of '\n'.
+
E.g, 'format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"'
would show something like this:
+
-------
The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<
-------
+
The placeholders are:
- Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:
'%n':: newline
'%%':: a raw '%'
'%x00':: print a byte from a hex code
- Placeholders that affect formatting of later placeholders:
'%Cred':: switch color to red
'%Cgreen':: switch color to green
'%Cblue':: switch color to blue
'%Creset':: reset color
'%C(...)':: color specification, as described under Values in the
"CONFIGURATION FILE" section of linkgit:git-config[1]. By
default, colors are shown only when enabled for log output
(by `color.diff`, `color.ui`, or `--color`, and respecting
the `auto` settings of the former if we are going to a
terminal). `%C(auto,...)` is accepted as a historical
synonym for the default (e.g., `%C(auto,red)`). Specifying
`%C(always,...)` will show the colors even when color is
not otherwise enabled (though consider just using
`--color=always` to enable color for the whole output,
including this format and anything else git might color).
`auto` alone (i.e. `%C(auto)`) will turn on auto coloring
on the next placeholders until the color is switched
again.
'%m':: left (`<`), right (`>`) or boundary (`-`) mark
'%w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]])':: switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
'%<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])':: make the next placeholder take at
least N columns, padding spaces on
the right if necessary. Optionally
truncate at the beginning (ltrunc),
the middle (mtrunc) or the end
(trunc) if the output is longer than
N columns. Note that truncating
only works correctly with N >= 2.
'%<|(<N>)':: make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary
'%>(<N>)', '%>|(<N>)':: similar to '%<(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)' respectively,
but padding spaces on the left
'%>>(<N>)', '%>>|(<N>)':: similar to '%>(<N>)', '%>|(<N>)'
respectively, except that if the next
placeholder takes more spaces than given and
there are spaces on its left, use those
spaces
'%><(<N>)', '%><|(<N>)':: similar to '%<(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)'
respectively, but padding both sides
(i.e. the text is centered)
- Placeholders that expand to information extracted from the commit:
'%H':: commit hash
'%h':: abbreviated commit hash
'%T':: tree hash
'%t':: abbreviated tree hash
'%P':: parent hashes
'%p':: abbreviated parent hashes
'%an':: author name
'%aN':: author name (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1]
or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%ae':: author email
'%aE':: author email (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1]
or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%al':: author email local-part (the part before the '@' sign)
'%aL':: author local-part (see '%al') respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%ad':: author date (format respects --date= option)
'%aD':: author date, RFC2822 style
'%ar':: author date, relative
'%at':: author date, UNIX timestamp
'%ai':: author date, ISO 8601-like format
'%aI':: author date, strict ISO 8601 format
'%as':: author date, short format (`YYYY-MM-DD`)
'%ah':: author date, human style (like the `--date=human` option of
linkgit:git-rev-list[1])
'%cn':: committer name
'%cN':: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%ce':: committer email
'%cE':: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%cl':: committer email local-part (the part before the '@' sign)
'%cL':: committer local-part (see '%cl') respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%cd':: committer date (format respects --date= option)
'%cD':: committer date, RFC2822 style
'%cr':: committer date, relative
'%ct':: committer date, UNIX timestamp
'%ci':: committer date, ISO 8601-like format
'%cI':: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format
'%cs':: committer date, short format (`YYYY-MM-DD`)
'%ch':: committer date, human style (like the `--date=human` option of
linkgit:git-rev-list[1])
'%d':: ref names, like the --decorate option of linkgit:git-log[1]
'%D':: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.
'%(describe[:options])':: human-readable name, like
linkgit:git-describe[1]; empty string for
undescribable commits. The `describe` string
may be followed by a colon and zero or more
comma-separated options. Descriptions can be
inconsistent when tags are added or removed at
the same time.
+
** 'match=<pattern>': Only consider tags matching the given
`glob(7)` pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.
** 'exclude=<pattern>': Do not consider tags matching the given
`glob(7)` pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.
'%S':: ref name given on the command line by which the commit was reached
(like `git log --source`), only works with `git log`
'%e':: encoding
'%s':: subject
'%f':: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
'%b':: body
'%B':: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)
ifndef::git-rev-list[]
'%N':: commit notes
endif::git-rev-list[]
'%GG':: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
'%G?':: show "G" for a good (valid) signature,
"B" for a bad signature,
"U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
"X" for a good signature that has expired,
"Y" for a good signature made by an expired key,
"R" for a good signature made by a revoked key,
"E" if the signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing key)
and "N" for no signature
'%GS':: show the name of the signer for a signed commit
'%GK':: show the key used to sign a signed commit
'%GF':: show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed commit
'%GP':: show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was used
to sign a signed commit
'%GT':: show the trust level for the key used to sign a signed commit
'%gD':: reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}` or `refs/stash@{2
minutes ago}`; the format follows the rules described for the
`-g` option. The portion before the `@` is the refname as
given on the command line (so `git log -g refs/heads/master`
would yield `refs/heads/master@{0}`).
'%gd':: shortened reflog selector; same as `%gD`, but the refname
portion is shortened for human readability (so
`refs/heads/master` becomes just `master`).
'%gn':: reflog identity name
'%gN':: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%ge':: reflog identity email
'%gE':: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%gs':: reflog subject
'%(trailers[:options])':: display the trailers of the body as
interpreted by
linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]. The
`trailers` string may be followed by a colon
and zero or more comma-separated options.
If any option is provided multiple times the
last occurrence wins.
+
The boolean options accept an optional value `[=<value>]`. The values
`true`, `false`, `on`, `off` etc. are all accepted. See the "boolean"
sub-section in "EXAMPLES" in linkgit:git-config[1]. If a boolean
option is given with no value, it's enabled.
+
** 'key=<key>': only show trailers with specified <key>. Matching is done
case-insensitively and trailing colon is optional. If option is
given multiple times trailer lines matching any of the keys are
shown. This option automatically enables the `only` option so that
non-trailer lines in the trailer block are hidden. If that is not
desired it can be disabled with `only=false`. E.g.,
`%(trailers:key=Reviewed-by)` shows trailer lines with key
`Reviewed-by`.
** 'only[=<bool>]': select whether non-trailer lines from the trailer
block should be included.
** 'separator=<sep>': specify a separator inserted between trailer
lines. When this option is not given each trailer line is
terminated with a line feed character. The string <sep> may contain
the literal formatting codes described above. To use comma as
separator one must use `%x2C` as it would otherwise be parsed as
next option. E.g., `%(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C )`
shows all trailer lines whose key is "Ticket" separated by a comma
and a space.
** 'unfold[=<bool>]': make it behave as if interpret-trailer's `--unfold`
option was given. E.g.,
`%(trailers:only,unfold=true)` unfolds and shows all trailer lines.
** 'keyonly[=<bool>]': only show the key part of the trailer.
** 'valueonly[=<bool>]': only show the value part of the trailer.
** 'key_value_separator=<sep>': specify a separator inserted between
trailer lines. When this option is not given each trailer key-value
pair is separated by ": ". Otherwise it shares the same semantics
as 'separator=<sep>' above.
NOTE: Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
revision traversal engine. For example, the `%g*` reflog options will
insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
`git log -g`). The `%d` and `%D` placeholders will use the "short"
decoration format if `--decorate` was not already provided on the command
line.
If you add a `+` (plus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, a line-feed
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.
If you add a `-` (minus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, all consecutive
line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only if the
placeholder expands to an empty string.
If you add a ` ` (space) after '%' of a placeholder, a space
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.
* 'tformat:'
+
The 'tformat:' format works exactly like 'format:', except that it
provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In
other words, each commit has the message terminator character (usually a
newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between entries.
This means that the final entry of a single-line format will be properly
terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does.
For example:
+
---------------------
$ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973 -- NO NEWLINE
$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973
---------------------
+
In addition, any unrecognized string that has a `%` in it is interpreted
as if it has `tformat:` in front of it. For example, these two are
equivalent:
+
---------------------
$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
$ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef
---------------------