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git-init - Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one
'git init' [-q | --quiet] [--bare] [--template=<template-directory>]
[--separate-git-dir <git-dir>] [--object-format=<format>]
[-b <branch-name> | --initial-branch=<branch-name>]
[--shared[=<permissions>]] [<directory>]
This command creates an empty Git repository - basically a `.git`
directory with subdirectories for `objects`, `refs/heads`,
`refs/tags`, and template files. An initial branch without any
commits will be created (see the `--initial-branch` option below
for its name).
If the `$GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it specifies a path
to use instead of `./.git` for the base of the repository.
If the object storage directory is specified via the
`$GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY` environment variable then the sha1 directories
are created underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
directory is used.
Running 'git init' in an existing repository is safe. It will not
overwrite things that are already there. The primary reason for
rerunning 'git init' is to pick up newly added templates (or to move
the repository to another place if --separate-git-dir is given).
Only print error and warning messages; all other output will be suppressed.
Create a bare repository. If `GIT_DIR` environment is not set, it is set to the
current working directory.
Specify the given object format (hash algorithm) for the repository. The valid
values are 'sha1' and (if enabled) 'sha256'. 'sha1' is the default.
Specify the directory from which templates will be used. (See the "TEMPLATE
DIRECTORY" section below.)
Instead of initializing the repository as a directory to either `$GIT_DIR` or
`./.git/`, create a text file there containing the path to the actual
repository. This file acts as filesystem-agnostic Git symbolic link to the
If this is reinitialization, the repository will be moved to the specified path.
-b <branch-name>::
Use the specified name for the initial branch in the newly created
repository. If not specified, fall back to the default name (currently
`master`, but this is subject to change in the future; the name can be
customized via the `init.defaultBranch` configuration variable).
Specify that the Git repository is to be shared amongst several users. This
allows users belonging to the same group to push into that
repository. When specified, the config variable "core.sharedRepository" is
set so that files and directories under `$GIT_DIR` are created with the
requested permissions. When not specified, Git will use permissions reported
by umask(2).
The option can have the following values, defaulting to 'group' if no value
is given:
'umask' (or 'false')::
Use permissions reported by umask(2). The default, when `--shared` is not
'group' (or 'true')::
Make the repository group-writable, (and g+sx, since the git group may be not
the primary group of all users). This is used to loosen the permissions of an
otherwise safe umask(2) value. Note that the umask still applies to the other
permission bits (e.g. if umask is '0022', using 'group' will not remove read
privileges from other (non-group) users). See '0xxx' for how to exactly specify
the repository permissions.
'all' (or 'world' or 'everybody')::
Same as 'group', but make the repository readable by all users.
'<perm>' is a 3-digit octal number prefixed with `0` and each file
will have mode '<perm>'. '<perm>' will override users' umask(2)
value (and not only loosen permissions as 'group' and 'all'
does). '0640' will create a repository which is group-readable, but
not group-writable or accessible to others. '0660' will create a repo
that is readable and writable to the current user and group, but
inaccessible to others (directories and executable files get their
`x` bit from the `r` bit for corresponding classes of users).
By default, the configuration flag `receive.denyNonFastForwards` is enabled
in shared repositories, so that you cannot force a non fast-forwarding push
into it.
If you provide a 'directory', the command is run inside it. If this directory
does not exist, it will be created.
Files and directories in the template directory whose name do not start with a
dot will be copied to the `$GIT_DIR` after it is created.
The template directory will be one of the following (in order):
- the argument given with the `--template` option;
- the contents of the `$GIT_TEMPLATE_DIR` environment variable;
- the `init.templateDir` configuration variable; or
- the default template directory: `/usr/share/git-core/templates`.
The default template directory includes some directory structure, suggested
"exclude patterns" (see linkgit:gitignore[5]), and sample hook files.
The sample hooks are all disabled by default. To enable one of the
sample hooks rename it by removing its `.sample` suffix.
See linkgit:githooks[5] for more general info on hook execution.
Start a new Git repository for an existing code base::
$ cd /path/to/my/codebase
$ git init <1>
$ git add . <2>
$ git commit <3>
<1> Create a /path/to/my/codebase/.git directory.
<2> Add all existing files to the index.
<3> Record the pristine state as the first commit in the history.
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite