Introduce (v4)

This patch introduces a very basic and barebone module
with a sketch of how the generic interface would look like;
most functions are missing, but this should give some good base.
I will continue expanding it.

Most desirable now is more careful error reporting, generic_in() for feeding
input to Git commands and the repository() constructor doing some poking
with git-rev-parse to get the git directory and subdirectory prefix.
Those three are basically the prerequisities for converting git-mv.
I will send them as follow-ups to this patch.

Currently just wraps up exec()s of Git commands, but even that
is not trivial to get right and various Git perl scripts do it in
various inconsistent ways. In addition to, there is now also
Git.xs which provides barebone Git.xs for directly interfacing with
libgit.a, and as an example providing the hash_object() function using

This adds the Git module, integrates it to the build system and as
an example converts the git-fmt-merge-msg.perl script to it (the result
is not very impressive since its advantage is not quite apparent in this
one, but I just picked up the simplest Git user around).

Compared to v3, only very minor things were fixed in this patch (some
whitespaces, a missing export, tiny bug in git-fmt-merge-msg.perl);
at first I wanted to post them as a separate patch but since this
is still only in pu, I decided that it will be cleaner to just resend
the patch.

My current working state is available all the time at

and an irregularily updated API documentation is at

Many thanks to Jakub Narebski, Junio and others for their feedback.

Signed-off-by: Petr Baudis <>
Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
Petr Baudis 16 years ago committed by Junio C Hamano
parent 35c636ec48
commit b1edc53d06
  1. 12
  2. 13
  3. 7
  4. 408
  5. 64
  6. 21

@ -490,7 +490,8 @@ export prefix TAR INSTALL DESTDIR SHELL_PATH template_dir
all: $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(BUILT_INS) git$X gitk
all: perl/Makefile
$(MAKE) -C perl
$(MAKE) -C templates
strip: $(PROGRAMS) git$X
@ -522,7 +523,7 @@ $(patsubst,%,$(SCRIPT_SH)) : % :
$(patsubst %.perl,%,$(SCRIPT_PERL)) : % : %.perl
rm -f $@ $@+
sed -e '1s|#!.*perl|#!$(PERL_PATH_SQ)|' \
sed -e '1s|#!.*perl\(.*\)|#!$(PERL_PATH_SQ)\1 -I'"$$(make -s -C perl instlibdir)"'|' \
-e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
$@.perl >$@+
chmod +x $@+
@ -608,6 +609,9 @@ $(XDIFF_LIB): $(XDIFF_OBJS)
rm -f $@ && $(AR) rcs $@ $(XDIFF_OBJS)
perl/Makefile: perl/ perl/Makefile.PL
(cd perl && $(PERL_PATH) Makefile.PL PREFIX="$(prefix)" DEFINE="$(ALL_CFLAGS)" LIBS="$(LIBS)")
$(MAKE) -C Documentation all
@ -663,6 +667,7 @@ install: all
$(INSTALL) $(ALL_PROGRAMS) '$(DESTDIR_SQ)$(gitexecdir_SQ)'
$(INSTALL) git$X gitk '$(DESTDIR_SQ)$(bindir_SQ)'
$(MAKE) -C templates install
$(MAKE) -C perl install
if test 'z$(bindir_SQ)' != 'z$(gitexecdir_SQ)'; \
@ -730,7 +735,8 @@ clean:
rm -f $(GIT_TARNAME).tar.gz git-core_$(GIT_VERSION)-*.tar.gz
rm -f $(htmldocs).tar.gz $(manpages).tar.gz
$(MAKE) -C Documentation/ clean
$(MAKE) -C templates clean
[ ! -e perl/Makefile ] || $(MAKE) -C perl/ clean
$(MAKE) -C templates/ clean
$(MAKE) -C t/ clean

@ -6,6 +6,9 @@
# by grouping branches and tags together to form a single line.
use strict;
use Git;
my $repo = Git->repository();
my @src;
my %src;
@ -28,13 +31,12 @@ sub andjoin {
sub repoconfig {
my ($val) = qx{git-repo-config --get merge.summary};
my ($val) = $repo->command_oneline('repo-config', '--get', 'merge.summary');
return $val;
sub current_branch {
my ($bra) = qx{git-symbolic-ref HEAD};
my ($bra) = $repo->command_oneline('symbolic-ref', 'HEAD');
$bra =~ s|^refs/heads/||;
if ($bra ne 'master') {
$bra = " into $bra";
@ -47,11 +49,10 @@ sub current_branch {
sub shortlog {
my ($tip) = @_;
my @result;
foreach ( qx{git-log --no-merges --topo-order --pretty=oneline $tip ^HEAD} ) {
foreach ($repo->command('log', '--no-merges', '--topo-order', '--pretty=oneline', $tip, '^HEAD')) {
push @result, $_;
die "git-log failed\n" if $?;
return @result;
@ -168,6 +169,6 @@ for (@origin) {
print " ...\n";
print " $log";
print " $log\n";

perl/.gitignore vendored

@ -0,0 +1,7 @@

@ -0,0 +1,408 @@
=head1 NAME
Git - Perl interface to the Git version control system
package Git;
use strict;
# Totally unstable API.
$VERSION = '0.01';
use Git;
my $version = Git::command_oneline('version');
my $repo = Git->repository (Directory => '/srv/git/cogito.git');
my @revs = $repo->command('rev-list', '--since=last monday', '--all');
my $fh = $repo->command_pipe('rev-list', '--since=last monday', '--all');
my $lastrev = <$fh>; chomp $lastrev;
close $fh; # You may want to test rev-list exit status here
my $lastrev = $repo->command_oneline('rev-list', '--all');
require Exporter;
@ISA = qw(Exporter);
@EXPORT = qw();
# Methods which can be called as standalone functions as well:
@EXPORT_OK = qw(command command_oneline command_pipe command_noisy
This module provides Perl scripts easy way to interface the Git version control
system. The modules have an easy and well-tested way to call arbitrary Git
commands; in the future, the interface will also provide specialized methods
for doing easily operations which are not totally trivial to do over
the generic command interface.
While some commands can be executed outside of any context (e.g. 'version'
or 'init-db'), most operations require a repository context, which in practice
means getting an instance of the Git object using the repository() constructor.
(In the future, we will also get a new_repository() constructor.) All commands
called as methods of the object are then executed in the context of the
TODO: In the future, we might also do
my $subdir = $repo->subdir('Documentation');
# Gets called in the subdirectory context:
my $remoterepo = $repo->remote_repository (Name => 'cogito', Branch => 'master');
$remoterepo ||= Git->remote_repository ('');
my @refs = $remoterepo->refs();
So far, all functions just die if anything goes wrong. If you don't want that,
make appropriate provisions to catch the possible deaths. Better error recovery
mechanisms will be provided in the future.
Currently, the module merely wraps calls to external Git tools. In the future,
it will provide a much faster way to interact with Git by linking directly
to libgit. This should be completely opaque to the user, though (performance
increate nonwithstanding).
use Carp qw(carp croak);
require XSLoader;
XSLoader::load('Git', $VERSION);
=over 4
=item repository ( OPTIONS )
=item repository ( DIRECTORY )
=item repository ()
Construct a new repository object.
C<OPTIONS> are passed in a hash like fashion, using key and value pairs.
Possible options are:
B<Repository> - Path to the Git repository.
B<WorkingCopy> - Path to the associated working copy; not strictly required
as many commands will happily crunch on a bare repository.
B<Directory> - Path to the Git working directory in its usual setup. This
is just for convenient setting of both C<Repository> and C<WorkingCopy>
at once: If the directory as a C<.git> subdirectory, C<Repository> is pointed
to the subdirectory and the directory is assumed to be the working copy.
If the directory does not have the subdirectory, C<WorkingCopy> is left
undefined and C<Repository> is pointed to the directory itself.
B<GitPath> - Path to the C<git> binary executable. By default the C<$PATH>
is searched for it.
You should not use both C<Directory> and either of C<Repository> and
C<WorkingCopy> - the results of that are undefined.
Alternatively, a directory path may be passed as a single scalar argument
to the constructor; it is equivalent to setting only the C<Directory> option
Calling the constructor with no options whatsoever is equivalent to
calling it with C<< Directory => '.' >>.
sub repository {
my $class = shift;
my @args = @_;
my %opts = ();
my $self;
if (defined $args[0]) {
if ($#args % 2 != 1) {
# Not a hash.
$#args == 0 or croak "bad usage";
%opts = (Directory => $args[0]);
} else {
%opts = @args;
if ($opts{Directory}) {
-d $opts{Directory} or croak "Directory not found: $!";
if (-d $opts{Directory}."/.git") {
# TODO: Might make this more clever
$opts{WorkingCopy} = $opts{Directory};
$opts{Repository} = $opts{Directory}."/.git";
} else {
$opts{Repository} = $opts{Directory};
delete $opts{Directory};
$self = { opts => \%opts };
bless $self, $class;
=head1 METHODS
=over 4
=item command ( COMMAND [, ARGUMENTS... ] )
Execute the given Git C<COMMAND> (specify it without the 'git-'
prefix), optionally with the specified extra C<ARGUMENTS>.
The method can be called without any instance or on a specified Git repository
(in that case the command will be run in the repository context).
In scalar context, it returns all the command output in a single string
In array context, it returns an array containing lines printed to the
command's stdout (without trailing newlines).
In both cases, the command's stdin and stderr are the same as the caller's.
sub command {
my $fh = command_pipe(@_);
if (not defined wantarray) {
} elsif (not wantarray) {
local $/;
my $text = <$fh>;
return $text;
} else {
my @lines = <$fh>;
chomp @lines;
return @lines;
=item command_oneline ( COMMAND [, ARGUMENTS... ] )
Execute the given C<COMMAND> in the same way as command()
does but always return a scalar string containing the first line
of the command's standard output.
sub command_oneline {
my $fh = command_pipe(@_);
my $line = <$fh>;
chomp $line;
return $line;
=item command_pipe ( COMMAND [, ARGUMENTS... ] )
Execute the given C<COMMAND> in the same way as command()
does but return a pipe filehandle from which the command output can be
sub command_pipe {
my ($self, $cmd, @args) = _maybe_self(@_);
$cmd =~ /^[a-z0-9A-Z_-]+$/ or croak "bad command: $cmd";
my $pid = open(my $fh, "-|");
if (not defined $pid) {
croak "open failed: $!";
} elsif ($pid == 0) {
_cmd_exec($self, $cmd, @args);
return $fh;
=item command_noisy ( COMMAND [, ARGUMENTS... ] )
Execute the given C<COMMAND> in the same way as command() does but do not
capture the command output - the standard output is not redirected and goes
to the standard output of the caller application.
While the method is called command_noisy(), you might want to as well use
it for the most silent Git commands which you know will never pollute your
stdout but you want to avoid the overhead of the pipe setup when calling them.
The function returns only after the command has finished running.
sub command_noisy {
my ($self, $cmd, @args) = _maybe_self(@_);
$cmd =~ /^[a-z0-9A-Z_-]+$/ or croak "bad command: $cmd";
my $pid = fork;
if (not defined $pid) {
croak "fork failed: $!";
} elsif ($pid == 0) {
_cmd_exec($self, $cmd, @args);
if (waitpid($pid, 0) > 0 and $? != 0) {
croak "exit status: $?";
=item hash_object ( FILENAME [, TYPE ] )
=item hash_object ( FILEHANDLE [, TYPE ] )
Compute the SHA1 object id of the given C<FILENAME> (or data waiting in
C<FILEHANDLE>) considering it is of the C<TYPE> object type (C<blob>
(default), C<commit>, C<tree>).
In case of C<FILEHANDLE> passed instead of file name, all the data
available are read and hashed, and the filehandle is automatically
closed. The file handle should be freshly opened - if you have already
read anything from the file handle, the results are undefined (since
this function works directly with the file descriptor and internal
PerlIO buffering might have messed things up).
The method can be called without any instance or on a specified Git repository,
it makes zero difference.
The function returns the SHA1 hash.
Implementation of this function is very fast; no external command calls
are involved.
# Implemented in Git.xs.
=head1 TODO
This is still fairly crude.
We need some good way to report errors back except just dying.
Copyright 2006 by Petr Baudis E<lt>pasky@suse.czE<gt>.
This module is free software; it may be used, copied, modified
and distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence,
either version 2, or (at your option) any later version.
# Take raw method argument list and return ($obj, @args) in case
# the method was called upon an instance and (undef, @args) if
# it was called directly.
sub _maybe_self {
# This breaks inheritance. Oh well.
ref $_[0] eq 'Git' ? @_ : (undef, @_);
# When already in the subprocess, set up the appropriate state
# for the given repository and execute the git command.
sub _cmd_exec {
my ($self, @args) = @_;
if ($self) {
$self->{opts}->{Repository} and $ENV{'GIT_DIR'} = $self->{opts}->{Repository};
$self->{opts}->{WorkingCopy} and chdir($self->{opts}->{WorkingCopy});
my $git = $self->{opts}->{GitPath};
$git ||= 'git';
exec ($git, @args) or croak "exec failed: $!";
# Close pipe to a subprocess.
sub _cmd_close {
my ($fh) = @_;
if (not close $fh) {
if ($!) {
# It's just close, no point in fatalities
carp "error closing pipe: $!";
} elsif ($? >> 8) {
croak "exit status: ".($? >> 8);
# else we might e.g. closed a live stream; the command
# dying of SIGPIPE would drive us here.
# Trickery for .xs routines: In order to avoid having some horrid
# C code trying to do stuff with undefs and hashes, we gate all
# xs calls through the following and in case we are being ran upon
# an instance call a C part of the gate which will set up the
# environment properly.
sub _call_gate {
my $xsfunc = shift;
my ($self, @args) = _maybe_self(@_);
if (defined $self) {
# XXX: We ignore the WorkingCopy! To properly support
# that will require heavy changes in libgit.
# XXX: And we ignore everything else as well. libgit
# at least needs to be extended to let us specify
# the $GIT_DIR instead of looking it up in environment.
my $xsname;
($xsname = $AUTOLOAD) =~ s/.*:://;
croak "&Git::$xsname not defined" if $xsname =~ /^xs_/;
$xsname = 'xs_'.$xsname;
_call_gate(\&$xsname, @_);
sub DESTROY { }
1; # Famous last words

@ -0,0 +1,64 @@
/* By carefully stacking #includes here (even if WE don't really need them)
* we strive to make the thing actually compile. Git header files aren't very
* nice. Perl headers are one of the signs of the coming apocalypse. */
#include <ctype.h>
/* Ok, it hasn't been so bad so far. */
/* libgit interface */
#include "../cache.h"
/* XS and Perl interface */
#include "EXTERN.h"
#include "perl.h"
#include "XSUB.h"
#include "ppport.h"
# /* TODO: xs_call_gate(). See */
char *
xs_hash_object(file, type = "blob")
SV *file;
char *type;
unsigned char sha1[20];
if (SvTYPE(file) == SVt_RV)
file = SvRV(file);
if (SvTYPE(file) == SVt_PVGV) {
/* Filehandle */
PerlIO *pio;
pio = IoIFP(sv_2io(file));
if (!pio)
croak("You passed me something weird - a dir glob?");
/* XXX: I just hope PerlIO didn't read anything from it yet.
* --pasky */
if (index_pipe(sha1, PerlIO_fileno(pio), type, 0))
croak("Unable to hash given filehandle");
/* Avoid any nasty surprises. */
} else {
/* String */
char *path = SvPV_nolen(file);
int fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
struct stat st;
if (fd < 0 ||
fstat(fd, &st) < 0 ||
index_fd(sha1, fd, &st, 0, type))
croak("Unable to hash %s", path);
RETVAL = sha1_to_hex(sha1);

@ -0,0 +1,21 @@
use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;
sub MY::postamble {
return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
NAME => 'Git',
MYEXTLIB => '../libgit.a',
INC => '-I. -I..',
use Devel::PPPort;
-s 'ppport.h' or Devel::PPPort::WriteFile();