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oidtree: a crit-bit tree for odb_loose_cache

This saves 8K per `struct object_directory', meaning it saves
around 800MB in my case involving 100K alternates (half or more
of those alternates are unlikely to hold loose objects).

This is implemented in two parts: a generic, allocation-free
`cbtree' and the `oidtree' wrapper on top of it.  The latter
provides allocation using alloc_state as a memory pool to
improve locality and reduce free(3) overhead.

Unlike oid-array, the crit-bit tree does not require sorting.
Performance is bound by the key length, for oidtree that is
fixed at sizeof(struct object_id).  There's no need to have
256 oidtrees to mitigate the O(n log n) overhead like we did
with oid-array.

Being a prefix trie, it is natively suited for expanding short
object IDs via prefix-limited iteration in
`find_short_object_filename'.

On my busy workstation, p4205 performance seems to be roughly
unchanged (+/-8%).  Startup with 100K total alternates with no
loose objects seems around 10-20% faster on a hot cache.
(800MB in memory savings means more memory for the kernel FS
cache).

The generic cbtree implementation does impose some extra
overhead for oidtree in that it uses memcmp(3) on
"struct object_id" so it wastes cycles comparing 12 extra bytes
on SHA-1 repositories.  I've not yet explored reducing this
overhead, but I expect there are many places in our code base
where we'd want to investigate this.

More information on crit-bit trees: https://cr.yp.to/critbit.html

Signed-off-by: Eric Wong <e@80x24.org>
Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
pull/1065/head
Eric Wong 1 year ago committed by Junio C Hamano
parent
commit
92d8ed8ac1
  1. 3
      Makefile
  2. 167
      cbtree.c
  3. 56
      cbtree.h
  4. 23
      object-file.c
  5. 28
      object-name.c
  6. 5
      object-store.h
  7. 104
      oidtree.c
  8. 22
      oidtree.h
  9. 49
      t/helper/test-oidtree.c
  10. 1
      t/helper/test-tool.c
  11. 1
      t/helper/test-tool.h
  12. 49
      t/t0069-oidtree.sh

3
Makefile

@ -722,6 +722,7 @@ TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-mergesort.o
TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-mktemp.o
TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-oid-array.o
TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-oidmap.o
TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-oidtree.o
TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-online-cpus.o
TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-parse-options.o
TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-parse-pathspec-file.o
@ -845,6 +846,7 @@ LIB_OBJS += branch.o
LIB_OBJS += bulk-checkin.o
LIB_OBJS += bundle.o
LIB_OBJS += cache-tree.o
LIB_OBJS += cbtree.o
LIB_OBJS += chdir-notify.o
LIB_OBJS += checkout.o
LIB_OBJS += chunk-format.o
@ -940,6 +942,7 @@ LIB_OBJS += object.o
LIB_OBJS += oid-array.o
LIB_OBJS += oidmap.o
LIB_OBJS += oidset.o
LIB_OBJS += oidtree.o
LIB_OBJS += pack-bitmap-write.o
LIB_OBJS += pack-bitmap.o
LIB_OBJS += pack-check.o

167
cbtree.c

@ -0,0 +1,167 @@
/*
* crit-bit tree implementation, does no allocations internally
* For more information on crit-bit trees: https://cr.yp.to/critbit.html
* Based on Adam Langley's adaptation of Dan Bernstein's public domain code
* git clone https://github.com/agl/critbit.git
*/
#include "cbtree.h"
static struct cb_node *cb_node_of(const void *p)
{
return (struct cb_node *)((uintptr_t)p - 1);
}
/* locate the best match, does not do a final comparision */
static struct cb_node *cb_internal_best_match(struct cb_node *p,
const uint8_t *k, size_t klen)
{
while (1 & (uintptr_t)p) {
struct cb_node *q = cb_node_of(p);
uint8_t c = q->byte < klen ? k[q->byte] : 0;
size_t direction = (1 + (q->otherbits | c)) >> 8;
p = q->child[direction];
}
return p;
}
/* returns NULL if successful, existing cb_node if duplicate */
struct cb_node *cb_insert(struct cb_tree *t, struct cb_node *node, size_t klen)
{
size_t newbyte, newotherbits;
uint8_t c;
int newdirection;
struct cb_node **wherep, *p;
assert(!((uintptr_t)node & 1)); /* allocations must be aligned */
if (!t->root) { /* insert into empty tree */
t->root = node;
return NULL; /* success */
}
/* see if a node already exists */
p = cb_internal_best_match(t->root, node->k, klen);
/* find first differing byte */
for (newbyte = 0; newbyte < klen; newbyte++) {
if (p->k[newbyte] != node->k[newbyte])
goto different_byte_found;
}
return p; /* element exists, let user deal with it */
different_byte_found:
newotherbits = p->k[newbyte] ^ node->k[newbyte];
newotherbits |= newotherbits >> 1;
newotherbits |= newotherbits >> 2;
newotherbits |= newotherbits >> 4;
newotherbits = (newotherbits & ~(newotherbits >> 1)) ^ 255;
c = p->k[newbyte];
newdirection = (1 + (newotherbits | c)) >> 8;
node->byte = newbyte;
node->otherbits = newotherbits;
node->child[1 - newdirection] = node;
/* find a place to insert it */
wherep = &t->root;
for (;;) {
struct cb_node *q;
size_t direction;
p = *wherep;
if (!(1 & (uintptr_t)p))
break;
q = cb_node_of(p);
if (q->byte > newbyte)
break;
if (q->byte == newbyte && q->otherbits > newotherbits)
break;
c = q->byte < klen ? node->k[q->byte] : 0;
direction = (1 + (q->otherbits | c)) >> 8;
wherep = q->child + direction;
}
node->child[newdirection] = *wherep;
*wherep = (struct cb_node *)(1 + (uintptr_t)node);
return NULL; /* success */
}
struct cb_node *cb_lookup(struct cb_tree *t, const uint8_t *k, size_t klen)
{
struct cb_node *p = cb_internal_best_match(t->root, k, klen);
return p && !memcmp(p->k, k, klen) ? p : NULL;
}
struct cb_node *cb_unlink(struct cb_tree *t, const uint8_t *k, size_t klen)
{
struct cb_node **wherep = &t->root;
struct cb_node **whereq = NULL;
struct cb_node *q = NULL;
size_t direction = 0;
uint8_t c;
struct cb_node *p = t->root;
if (!p) return NULL; /* empty tree, nothing to delete */
/* traverse to find best match, keeping link to parent */
while (1 & (uintptr_t)p) {
whereq = wherep;
q = cb_node_of(p);
c = q->byte < klen ? k[q->byte] : 0;
direction = (1 + (q->otherbits | c)) >> 8;
wherep = q->child + direction;
p = *wherep;
}
if (memcmp(p->k, k, klen))
return NULL; /* no match, nothing unlinked */
/* found an exact match */
if (whereq) /* update parent */
*whereq = q->child[1 - direction];
else
t->root = NULL;
return p;
}
static enum cb_next cb_descend(struct cb_node *p, cb_iter fn, void *arg)
{
if (1 & (uintptr_t)p) {
struct cb_node *q = cb_node_of(p);
enum cb_next n = cb_descend(q->child[0], fn, arg);
return n == CB_BREAK ? n : cb_descend(q->child[1], fn, arg);
} else {
return fn(p, arg);
}
}
void cb_each(struct cb_tree *t, const uint8_t *kpfx, size_t klen,
cb_iter fn, void *arg)
{
struct cb_node *p = t->root;
struct cb_node *top = p;
size_t i = 0;
if (!p) return; /* empty tree */
/* Walk tree, maintaining top pointer */
while (1 & (uintptr_t)p) {
struct cb_node *q = cb_node_of(p);
uint8_t c = q->byte < klen ? kpfx[q->byte] : 0;
size_t direction = (1 + (q->otherbits | c)) >> 8;
p = q->child[direction];
if (q->byte < klen)
top = p;
}
for (i = 0; i < klen; i++) {
if (p->k[i] != kpfx[i])
return; /* "best" match failed */
}
cb_descend(top, fn, arg);
}

56
cbtree.h

@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
/*
* crit-bit tree implementation, does no allocations internally
* For more information on crit-bit trees: https://cr.yp.to/critbit.html
* Based on Adam Langley's adaptation of Dan Bernstein's public domain code
* git clone https://github.com/agl/critbit.git
*
* This is adapted to store arbitrary data (not just NUL-terminated C strings
* and allocates no memory internally. The user needs to allocate
* "struct cb_node" and fill cb_node.k[] with arbitrary match data
* for memcmp.
* If "klen" is variable, then it should be embedded into "c_node.k[]"
* Recursion is bound by the maximum value of "klen" used.
*/
#ifndef CBTREE_H
#define CBTREE_H
#include "git-compat-util.h"
struct cb_node;
struct cb_node {
struct cb_node *child[2];
/*
* n.b. uint32_t for `byte' is excessive for OIDs,
* we may consider shorter variants if nothing else gets stored.
*/
uint32_t byte;
uint8_t otherbits;
uint8_t k[FLEX_ARRAY]; /* arbitrary data */
};
struct cb_tree {
struct cb_node *root;
};
enum cb_next {
CB_CONTINUE = 0,
CB_BREAK = 1
};
#define CBTREE_INIT { .root = NULL }
static inline void cb_init(struct cb_tree *t)
{
t->root = NULL;
}
struct cb_node *cb_lookup(struct cb_tree *, const uint8_t *k, size_t klen);
struct cb_node *cb_insert(struct cb_tree *, struct cb_node *, size_t klen);
struct cb_node *cb_unlink(struct cb_tree *t, const uint8_t *k, size_t klen);
typedef enum cb_next (*cb_iter)(struct cb_node *, void *arg);
void cb_each(struct cb_tree *, const uint8_t *kpfx, size_t klen,
cb_iter, void *arg);
#endif /* CBTREE_H */

23
object-file.c

@ -1173,7 +1173,7 @@ static int quick_has_loose(struct repository *r,
prepare_alt_odb(r);
for (odb = r->objects->odb; odb; odb = odb->next) {
if (oid_array_lookup(odb_loose_cache(odb, oid), oid) >= 0)
if (oidtree_contains(odb_loose_cache(odb, oid), oid))
return 1;
}
return 0;
@ -2452,11 +2452,11 @@ int for_each_loose_object(each_loose_object_fn cb, void *data,
static int append_loose_object(const struct object_id *oid, const char *path,
void *data)
{
oid_array_append(data, oid);
oidtree_insert(data, oid);
return 0;
}
struct oid_array *odb_loose_cache(struct object_directory *odb,
struct oidtree *odb_loose_cache(struct object_directory *odb,
const struct object_id *oid)
{
int subdir_nr = oid->hash[0];
@ -2472,24 +2472,25 @@ struct oid_array *odb_loose_cache(struct object_directory *odb,
bitmap = &odb->loose_objects_subdir_seen[word_index];
if (*bitmap & mask)
return &odb->loose_objects_cache[subdir_nr];
return odb->loose_objects_cache;
if (!odb->loose_objects_cache) {
ALLOC_ARRAY(odb->loose_objects_cache, 1);
oidtree_init(odb->loose_objects_cache);
}
strbuf_addstr(&buf, odb->path);
for_each_file_in_obj_subdir(subdir_nr, &buf,
append_loose_object,
NULL, NULL,
&odb->loose_objects_cache[subdir_nr]);
odb->loose_objects_cache);
*bitmap |= mask;
strbuf_release(&buf);
return &odb->loose_objects_cache[subdir_nr];
return odb->loose_objects_cache;
}
void odb_clear_loose_cache(struct object_directory *odb)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(odb->loose_objects_cache); i++)
oid_array_clear(&odb->loose_objects_cache[i]);
oidtree_clear(odb->loose_objects_cache);
FREE_AND_NULL(odb->loose_objects_cache);
memset(&odb->loose_objects_subdir_seen, 0,
sizeof(odb->loose_objects_subdir_seen));
}

28
object-name.c

@ -87,27 +87,21 @@ static void update_candidates(struct disambiguate_state *ds, const struct object
static int match_hash(unsigned, const unsigned char *, const unsigned char *);
static enum cb_next match_prefix(const struct object_id *oid, void *arg)
{
struct disambiguate_state *ds = arg;
/* no need to call match_hash, oidtree_each did prefix match */
update_candidates(ds, oid);
return ds->ambiguous ? CB_BREAK : CB_CONTINUE;
}
static void find_short_object_filename(struct disambiguate_state *ds)
{
struct object_directory *odb;
for (odb = ds->repo->objects->odb; odb && !ds->ambiguous; odb = odb->next) {
int pos;
struct oid_array *loose_objects;
loose_objects = odb_loose_cache(odb, &ds->bin_pfx);
pos = oid_array_lookup(loose_objects, &ds->bin_pfx);
if (pos < 0)
pos = -1 - pos;
while (!ds->ambiguous && pos < loose_objects->nr) {
const struct object_id *oid;
oid = loose_objects->oid + pos;
if (!match_hash(ds->len, ds->bin_pfx.hash, oid->hash))
break;
update_candidates(ds, oid);
pos++;
}
}
for (odb = ds->repo->objects->odb; odb && !ds->ambiguous; odb = odb->next)
oidtree_each(odb_loose_cache(odb, &ds->bin_pfx),
&ds->bin_pfx, ds->len, match_prefix, ds);
}
static int match_hash(unsigned len, const unsigned char *a, const unsigned char *b)

5
object-store.h

@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
#include "thread-utils.h"
#include "khash.h"
#include "dir.h"
#include "oidtree.h"
struct object_directory {
struct object_directory *next;
@ -23,7 +24,7 @@ struct object_directory {
* Be sure to call odb_load_loose_cache() before using.
*/
uint32_t loose_objects_subdir_seen[8]; /* 256 bits */
struct oid_array loose_objects_cache[256];
struct oidtree *loose_objects_cache;
/*
* Path to the alternative object store. If this is a relative path,
@ -59,7 +60,7 @@ void add_to_alternates_memory(const char *dir);
* Populate and return the loose object cache array corresponding to the
* given object ID.
*/
struct oid_array *odb_loose_cache(struct object_directory *odb,
struct oidtree *odb_loose_cache(struct object_directory *odb,
const struct object_id *oid);
/* Empty the loose object cache for the specified object directory. */

104
oidtree.c

@ -0,0 +1,104 @@
/*
* A wrapper around cbtree which stores oids
* May be used to replace oid-array for prefix (abbreviation) matches
*/
#include "oidtree.h"
#include "alloc.h"
#include "hash.h"
struct oidtree_node {
/* n.k[] is used to store "struct object_id" */
struct cb_node n;
};
struct oidtree_iter_data {
oidtree_iter fn;
void *arg;
size_t *last_nibble_at;
int algo;
uint8_t last_byte;
};
void oidtree_init(struct oidtree *ot)
{
cb_init(&ot->tree);
mem_pool_init(&ot->mem_pool, 0);
}
void oidtree_clear(struct oidtree *ot)
{
if (ot) {
mem_pool_discard(&ot->mem_pool, 0);
oidtree_init(ot);
}
}
void oidtree_insert(struct oidtree *ot, const struct object_id *oid)
{
struct oidtree_node *on;
if (!oid->algo)
BUG("oidtree_insert requires oid->algo");
on = mem_pool_alloc(&ot->mem_pool, sizeof(*on) + sizeof(*oid));
oidcpy_with_padding((struct object_id *)on->n.k, oid);
/*
* n.b. Current callers won't get us duplicates, here. If a
* future caller causes duplicates, there'll be a a small leak
* that won't be freed until oidtree_clear. Currently it's not
* worth maintaining a free list
*/
cb_insert(&ot->tree, &on->n, sizeof(*oid));
}
int oidtree_contains(struct oidtree *ot, const struct object_id *oid)
{
struct object_id k;
size_t klen = sizeof(k);
oidcpy_with_padding(&k, oid);
if (oid->algo == GIT_HASH_UNKNOWN)
klen -= sizeof(oid->algo);
/* cb_lookup relies on memcmp on the struct, so order matters: */
klen += BUILD_ASSERT_OR_ZERO(offsetof(struct object_id, hash) <
offsetof(struct object_id, algo));
return cb_lookup(&ot->tree, (const uint8_t *)&k, klen) ? 1 : 0;
}
static enum cb_next iter(struct cb_node *n, void *arg)
{
struct oidtree_iter_data *x = arg;
const struct object_id *oid = (const struct object_id *)n->k;
if (x->algo != GIT_HASH_UNKNOWN && x->algo != oid->algo)
return CB_CONTINUE;
if (x->last_nibble_at) {
if ((oid->hash[*x->last_nibble_at] ^ x->last_byte) & 0xf0)
return CB_CONTINUE;
}
return x->fn(oid, x->arg);
}
void oidtree_each(struct oidtree *ot, const struct object_id *oid,
size_t oidhexsz, oidtree_iter fn, void *arg)
{
size_t klen = oidhexsz / 2;
struct oidtree_iter_data x = { 0 };
assert(oidhexsz <= GIT_MAX_HEXSZ);
x.fn = fn;
x.arg = arg;
x.algo = oid->algo;
if (oidhexsz & 1) {
x.last_byte = oid->hash[klen];
x.last_nibble_at = &klen;
}
cb_each(&ot->tree, (const uint8_t *)oid, klen, iter, &x);
}

22
oidtree.h

@ -0,0 +1,22 @@
#ifndef OIDTREE_H
#define OIDTREE_H
#include "cbtree.h"
#include "hash.h"
#include "mem-pool.h"
struct oidtree {
struct cb_tree tree;
struct mem_pool mem_pool;
};
void oidtree_init(struct oidtree *);
void oidtree_clear(struct oidtree *);
void oidtree_insert(struct oidtree *, const struct object_id *);
int oidtree_contains(struct oidtree *, const struct object_id *);
typedef enum cb_next (*oidtree_iter)(const struct object_id *, void *data);
void oidtree_each(struct oidtree *, const struct object_id *,
size_t oidhexsz, oidtree_iter, void *data);
#endif /* OIDTREE_H */

49
t/helper/test-oidtree.c

@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
#include "test-tool.h"
#include "cache.h"
#include "oidtree.h"
static enum cb_next print_oid(const struct object_id *oid, void *data)
{
puts(oid_to_hex(oid));
return CB_CONTINUE;
}
int cmd__oidtree(int argc, const char **argv)
{
struct oidtree ot;
struct strbuf line = STRBUF_INIT;
int nongit_ok;
int algo = GIT_HASH_UNKNOWN;
oidtree_init(&ot);
setup_git_directory_gently(&nongit_ok);
while (strbuf_getline(&line, stdin) != EOF) {
const char *arg;
struct object_id oid;
if (skip_prefix(line.buf, "insert ", &arg)) {
if (get_oid_hex_any(arg, &oid) == GIT_HASH_UNKNOWN)
die("insert not a hexadecimal oid: %s", arg);
algo = oid.algo;
oidtree_insert(&ot, &oid);
} else if (skip_prefix(line.buf, "contains ", &arg)) {
if (get_oid_hex(arg, &oid))
die("contains not a hexadecimal oid: %s", arg);
printf("%d\n", oidtree_contains(&ot, &oid));
} else if (skip_prefix(line.buf, "each ", &arg)) {
char buf[GIT_MAX_HEXSZ + 1] = { '0' };
memset(&oid, 0, sizeof(oid));
memcpy(buf, arg, strlen(arg));
buf[hash_algos[algo].hexsz] = '\0';
get_oid_hex_any(buf, &oid);
oid.algo = algo;
oidtree_each(&ot, &oid, strlen(arg), print_oid, NULL);
} else if (!strcmp(line.buf, "clear")) {
oidtree_clear(&ot);
} else {
die("unknown command: %s", line.buf);
}
}
return 0;
}

1
t/helper/test-tool.c

@ -43,6 +43,7 @@ static struct test_cmd cmds[] = {
{ "mktemp", cmd__mktemp },
{ "oid-array", cmd__oid_array },
{ "oidmap", cmd__oidmap },
{ "oidtree", cmd__oidtree },
{ "online-cpus", cmd__online_cpus },
{ "parse-options", cmd__parse_options },
{ "parse-pathspec-file", cmd__parse_pathspec_file },

1
t/helper/test-tool.h

@ -32,6 +32,7 @@ int cmd__match_trees(int argc, const char **argv);
int cmd__mergesort(int argc, const char **argv);
int cmd__mktemp(int argc, const char **argv);
int cmd__oidmap(int argc, const char **argv);
int cmd__oidtree(int argc, const char **argv);
int cmd__online_cpus(int argc, const char **argv);
int cmd__parse_options(int argc, const char **argv);
int cmd__parse_pathspec_file(int argc, const char** argv);

49
t/t0069-oidtree.sh

@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
#!/bin/sh
test_description='basic tests for the oidtree implementation'
. ./test-lib.sh
maxhexsz=$(test_oid hexsz)
echoid () {
prefix="${1:+$1 }"
shift
while test $# -gt 0
do
shortoid="$1"
shift
difference=$(($maxhexsz - ${#shortoid}))
printf "%s%s%0${difference}d\\n" "$prefix" "$shortoid" "0"
done
}
test_expect_success 'oidtree insert and contains' '
cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
0
0
0
1
1
0
EOF
{
echoid insert 444 1 2 3 4 5 a b c d e &&
echoid contains 44 441 440 444 4440 4444
echo clear
} | test-tool oidtree >actual &&
test_cmp expect actual
'
test_expect_success 'oidtree each' '
echoid "" 123 321 321 >expect &&
{
echoid insert f 9 8 123 321 a b c d e
echo each 12300
echo each 3211
echo each 3210
echo each 32100
echo clear
} | test-tool oidtree >actual &&
test_cmp expect actual
'
test_done
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