pack-bitmap-write: reimplement bitmap writing

The bitmap generation code works by iterating over the set of commits
for which we plan to write bitmaps, and then for each one performing a
traditional traversal over the reachable commits and trees, filling in
the bitmap. Between two traversals, we can often reuse the previous
bitmap result as long as the first commit is an ancestor of the second.
However, our worst case is that we may end up doing "n" complete
complete traversals to the root in order to create "n" bitmaps.

In a real-world case (the shared-storage repo consisting of all GitHub
forks of chromium/chromium), we perform very poorly: generating bitmaps
takes ~3 hours, whereas we can walk the whole object graph in ~3

This commit completely rewrites the algorithm, with the goal of
accessing each object only once. It works roughly like this:

  - generate a list of commits in topo-order using a single traversal

  - invert the edges of the graph (so have parents point at their

  - make one pass in reverse topo-order, generating a bitmap for each
    commit and passing the result along to child nodes

We generate correct results because each node we visit has already had
all of its ancestors added to the bitmap. And we make only two linear
passes over the commits.

We also visit each tree usually only once. When filling in a bitmap, we
don't bother to recurse into trees whose bit is already set in the
bitmap (since we know we've already done so when setting their bit).
That means that if commit A references tree T, none of its descendants
will need to open T again. I say "usually", though, because it is
possible for a given tree to be mentioned in unrelated parts of history
(e.g., cherry-picking to a parallel branch).

So we've accomplished our goal, and the resulting algorithm is pretty
simple to understand. But there are some downsides, at least with this
initial implementation:

  - we no longer reuse the results of any on-disk bitmaps when
    generating. So we'd expect to sometimes be slower than the original
    when bitmaps already exist. However, this is something we'll be able
    to add back in later.

  - we use much more memory. Instead of keeping one bitmap in memory at
    a time, we're passing them up through the graph. So our memory use
    should scale with the graph width (times the size of a bitmap).

So how does it perform?

For a clone of linux.git, generating bitmaps from scratch with the old
algorithm took 63s. Using this algorithm it takes 205s. Which is much
worse, but _might_ be acceptable if it behaved linearly as the size
grew. It also increases peak heap usage by ~1G. That's not impossibly
large, but not encouraging.

On the complete fork-network of torvalds/linux, it increases the peak
RAM usage by 40GB. Yikes. (I forgot to record the time it took, but the
memory usage was too much to consider this reasonable anyway).

On the complete fork-network of chromium/chromium, I ran out of memory
before succeeding. Some back-of-the-envelope calculations indicate it
would need 80+GB to complete.

So at this stage, we've managed to make things much worse. But because
of the way this new algorithm is structured, there are a lot of
opportunities for optimization on top. We'll start implementing those in
the follow-on patches.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <>
Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <>
Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
Jeff King 2 years ago committed by Junio C Hamano
parent ccae08e822
commit 4a9c581729
  1. 284

@ -110,8 +110,6 @@ void bitmap_writer_build_type_index(struct packing_data *to_pack,
* Compute the actual bitmaps
static struct object **seen_objects;
static unsigned int seen_objects_nr, seen_objects_alloc;
static inline void push_bitmapped_commit(struct commit *commit, struct ewah_bitmap *reused)
@ -127,21 +125,6 @@ static inline void push_bitmapped_commit(struct commit *commit, struct ewah_bitm
static inline void mark_as_seen(struct object *object)
ALLOC_GROW(seen_objects, seen_objects_nr + 1, seen_objects_alloc);
seen_objects[seen_objects_nr++] = object;
static inline void reset_all_seen(void)
unsigned int i;
for (i = 0; i < seen_objects_nr; ++i) {
seen_objects[i]->flags &= ~(SEEN | ADDED | SHOWN);
seen_objects_nr = 0;
static uint32_t find_object_pos(const struct object_id *oid)
struct object_entry *entry = packlist_find(writer.to_pack, oid);
@ -154,60 +137,6 @@ static uint32_t find_object_pos(const struct object_id *oid)
return oe_in_pack_pos(writer.to_pack, entry);
static void show_object(struct object *object, const char *name, void *data)
struct bitmap *base = data;
bitmap_set(base, find_object_pos(&object->oid));
static void show_commit(struct commit *commit, void *data)
mark_as_seen((struct object *)commit);
static int
add_to_include_set(struct bitmap *base, struct commit *commit)
khiter_t hash_pos;
uint32_t bitmap_pos = find_object_pos(&commit->object.oid);
if (bitmap_get(base, bitmap_pos))
return 0;
hash_pos = kh_get_oid_map(writer.bitmaps, commit->object.oid);
if (hash_pos < kh_end(writer.bitmaps)) {
struct bitmapped_commit *bc = kh_value(writer.bitmaps, hash_pos);
bitmap_or_ewah(base, bc->bitmap);
return 0;
bitmap_set(base, bitmap_pos);
return 1;
static int
should_include(struct commit *commit, void *_data)
struct bitmap *base = _data;
if (!add_to_include_set(base, commit)) {
struct commit_list *parent = commit->parents;
mark_as_seen((struct object *)commit);
while (parent) {
parent->item->object.flags |= SEEN;
mark_as_seen((struct object *)parent->item);
parent = parent->next;
return 0;
return 1;
static void compute_xor_offsets(void)
static const int MAX_XOR_OFFSET_SEARCH = 10;
@ -248,79 +177,188 @@ static void compute_xor_offsets(void)
void bitmap_writer_build(struct packing_data *to_pack)
static const double REUSE_BITMAP_THRESHOLD = 0.2;
struct bb_commit {
struct commit_list *children;
struct bitmap *bitmap;
unsigned selected:1;
unsigned idx; /* within selected array */
int i, reuse_after, need_reset;
struct bitmap *base = bitmap_new();
struct rev_info revs;
define_commit_slab(bb_data, struct bb_commit);
writer.bitmaps = kh_init_oid_map();
writer.to_pack = to_pack;
struct bitmap_builder {
struct bb_data data;
struct commit **commits;
size_t commits_nr, commits_alloc;
if (writer.show_progress)
writer.progress = start_progress("Building bitmaps", writer.selected_nr);
static void bitmap_builder_init(struct bitmap_builder *bb,
struct bitmap_writer *writer)
struct rev_info revs;
struct commit *commit;
unsigned int i;
repo_init_revisions(to_pack->repo, &revs, NULL);
revs.tag_objects = 1;
revs.tree_objects = 1;
revs.blob_objects = 1;
revs.no_walk = 0;
memset(bb, 0, sizeof(*bb));
revs.include_check = should_include;
repo_init_revisions(writer->to_pack->repo, &revs, NULL);
revs.topo_order = 1;
for (i = 0; i < writer->selected_nr; i++) {
struct commit *c = writer->selected[i].commit;
struct bb_commit *ent = bb_data_at(&bb->data, c);
ent->selected = 1;
ent->idx = i;
add_pending_object(&revs, &c->object, "");
reuse_after = writer.selected_nr * REUSE_BITMAP_THRESHOLD;
need_reset = 0;
if (prepare_revision_walk(&revs))
die("revision walk setup failed");
for (i = writer.selected_nr - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
struct bitmapped_commit *stored;
struct object *object;
while ((commit = get_revision(&revs))) {
struct commit_list *p;
khiter_t hash_pos;
int hash_ret;
stored = &writer.selected[i];
object = (struct object *)stored->commit;
ALLOC_GROW(bb->commits, bb->commits_nr + 1, bb->commits_alloc);
bb->commits[bb->commits_nr++] = commit;
if (stored->bitmap == NULL) {
if (i < writer.selected_nr - 1 &&
(need_reset ||
!in_merge_bases(writer.selected[i + 1].commit,
stored->commit))) {
for (p = commit->parents; p; p = p->next) {
struct bb_commit *ent = bb_data_at(&bb->data, p->item);
commit_list_insert(commit, &ent->children);
add_pending_object(&revs, object, "");
revs.include_check_data = base;
static void bitmap_builder_clear(struct bitmap_builder *bb)
bb->commits_nr = bb->commits_alloc = 0;
if (prepare_revision_walk(&revs))
die("revision walk setup failed");
static void fill_bitmap_tree(struct bitmap *bitmap,
struct tree *tree)
uint32_t pos;
struct tree_desc desc;
struct name_entry entry;
traverse_commit_list(&revs, show_commit, show_object, base);
* If our bit is already set, then there is nothing to do. Both this
* tree and all of its children will be set.
pos = find_object_pos(&tree->object.oid);
if (bitmap_get(bitmap, pos))
bitmap_set(bitmap, pos);
if (parse_tree(tree) < 0)
die("unable to load tree object %s",
init_tree_desc(&desc, tree->buffer, tree->size);
stored->bitmap = bitmap_to_ewah(base);
need_reset = 0;
} else
need_reset = 1;
while (tree_entry(&desc, &entry)) {
switch (object_type(entry.mode)) {
case OBJ_TREE:
lookup_tree(the_repository, &entry.oid));
case OBJ_BLOB:
bitmap_set(bitmap, find_object_pos(&entry.oid));
/* Gitlink, etc; not reachable */
if (i >= reuse_after)
stored->flags |= BITMAP_FLAG_REUSE;
static void fill_bitmap_commit(struct bb_commit *ent,
struct commit *commit)
if (!ent->bitmap)
ent->bitmap = bitmap_new();
hash_pos = kh_put_oid_map(writer.bitmaps, object->oid, &hash_ret);
if (hash_ret == 0)
die("Duplicate entry when writing index: %s",
* mark ourselves, but do not bother with parents; their values
* will already have been propagated to us
bitmap_set(ent->bitmap, find_object_pos(&commit->object.oid));
fill_bitmap_tree(ent->bitmap, get_commit_tree(commit));
kh_value(writer.bitmaps, hash_pos) = stored;
display_progress(writer.progress, writer.selected_nr - i);
static void store_selected(struct bb_commit *ent, struct commit *commit)
struct bitmapped_commit *stored = &writer.selected[ent->idx];
khiter_t hash_pos;
int hash_ret;
* the "reuse bitmaps" phase may have stored something here, but
* our new algorithm doesn't use it. Drop it.
if (stored->bitmap)
stored->bitmap = bitmap_to_ewah(ent->bitmap);
hash_pos = kh_put_oid_map(writer.bitmaps, commit->object.oid, &hash_ret);
if (hash_ret == 0)
die("Duplicate entry when writing index: %s",
kh_value(writer.bitmaps, hash_pos) = stored;
void bitmap_writer_build(struct packing_data *to_pack)
struct bitmap_builder bb;
size_t i;
int nr_stored = 0; /* for progress */
writer.bitmaps = kh_init_oid_map();
writer.to_pack = to_pack;
if (writer.show_progress)
writer.progress = start_progress("Building bitmaps", writer.selected_nr);
trace2_region_enter("pack-bitmap-write", "building_bitmaps_total",
bitmap_builder_init(&bb, &writer);
for (i = bb.commits_nr; i > 0; i--) {
struct commit *commit = bb.commits[i-1];
struct bb_commit *ent = bb_data_at(&, commit);
struct commit *child;
fill_bitmap_commit(ent, commit);
if (ent->selected) {
store_selected(ent, commit);
display_progress(writer.progress, nr_stored);
while ((child = pop_commit(&ent->children))) {
struct bb_commit *child_ent =
bb_data_at(&, child);
if (child_ent->bitmap)
bitmap_or(child_ent->bitmap, ent->bitmap);
child_ent->bitmap = bitmap_dup(ent->bitmap);
ent->bitmap = NULL;
trace2_region_leave("pack-bitmap-write", "building_bitmaps_total",