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git/pack-revindex.h

128 lines
4.2 KiB

#ifndef PACK_REVINDEX_H
#define PACK_REVINDEX_H
pack-revindex: introduce a new API In the next several patches, we will prepare for loading a reverse index either in memory (mapping the inverse of the .idx's contents in-core), or directly from a yet-to-be-introduced on-disk format. To prepare for that, we'll introduce an API that avoids the caller explicitly indexing the revindex pointer in the packed_git structure. There are four ways to interact with the reverse index. Accordingly, four functions will be exported from 'pack-revindex.h' by the time that the existing API is removed. A caller may: 1. Load the pack's reverse index. This involves opening up the index, generating an array, and then sorting it. Since opening the index can fail, this function ('load_pack_revindex()') returns an int. Accordingly, it takes only a single argument: the 'struct packed_git' the caller wants to build a reverse index for. This function is well-suited for both the current and new API. Callers will have to continue to open the reverse index explicitly, but this function will eventually learn how to detect and load a reverse index from the on-disk format, if one exists. Otherwise, it will fallback to generating one in memory from scratch. 2. Convert a pack position into an offset. This operation is now called `pack_pos_to_offset()`. It takes a pack and a position, and returns the corresponding off_t. Any error simply calls BUG(), since the callers are not well-suited to handle a failure and keep going. 3. Convert a pack position into an index position. Same as above; this takes a pack and a position, and returns a uint32_t. This operation is known as `pack_pos_to_index()`. The same thinking about error conditions applies here as well. 4. Find the pack position for a given offset. This operation is now known as `offset_to_pack_pos()`. It takes a pack, an offset, and a pointer to a uint32_t where the position is written, if an object exists at that offset. Otherwise, -1 is returned to indicate failure. Unlike some of the callers that used to access '->offset' and '->nr' directly, the error checking around this call is somewhat more robust. This is important since callers should always pass an offset which points at the boundary of two objects. The API, unlike direct access, enforces that that is the case. This will become important in a subsequent patch where a caller which does not but could check the return value treats the signed `-1` from `find_revindex_position()` as an index into the 'revindex' array. Two design warts are carried over into the new API: - Asking for the index position of an out-of-bounds object will result in a BUG() (since no such object exists), but asking for the offset of the non-existent object at the end of the pack returns the total size of the pack. This makes it convenient for callers who always want to take the difference of two adjacent object's offsets (to compute the on-disk size) but don't want to worry about boundaries at the end of the pack. - offset_to_pack_pos() lazily loads the reverse index, but pack_pos_to_index() doesn't (callers of the former are well-suited to handle errors, but callers of the latter are not). Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
/**
* A revindex allows converting efficiently between three properties
* of an object within a pack:
*
* - index position: the numeric position within the list of sorted object ids
* found in the .idx file
*
* - pack position: the numeric position within the list of objects in their
* order within the actual .pack file (i.e., 0 is the first object in the
* .pack, 1 is the second, and so on)
*
* - offset: the byte offset within the .pack file at which the object contents
* can be found
pack-revindex: read multi-pack reverse indexes Implement reading for multi-pack reverse indexes, as described in the previous patch. Note that these functions don't yet have any callers, and won't until multi-pack reachability bitmaps are introduced in a later patch series. In the meantime, this patch implements some of the infrastructure necessary to support multi-pack bitmaps. There are three new functions exposed by the revindex API: - load_midx_revindex(): loads the reverse index corresponding to the given multi-pack index. - midx_to_pack_pos() and pack_pos_to_midx(): these convert between the multi-pack index and pseudo-pack order. load_midx_revindex() and pack_pos_to_midx() are both relatively straightforward. load_midx_revindex() needs a few functions to be exposed from the midx API. One to get the checksum of a midx, and another to get the .rev's filename. Similar to recent changes in the packed_git struct, three new fields are added to the multi_pack_index struct: one to keep track of the size, one to keep track of the mmap'd pointer, and another to point past the header and at the reverse index's data. pack_pos_to_midx() simply reads the corresponding entry out of the table. midx_to_pack_pos() is the trickiest, since it needs to find an object's position in the psuedo-pack order, but that order can only be recovered in the .rev file itself. This mapping can be implemented with a binary search, but note that the thing we're binary searching over isn't an array of values, but rather a permuted order of those values. So, when comparing two items, it's helpful to keep in mind the difference. Instead of a traditional binary search, where you are comparing two things directly, here we're comparing a (pack, offset) tuple with an index into the multi-pack index. That index describes another (pack, offset) tuple, and it is _those_ two tuples that are compared. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
*
* The revindex can also be used with a multi-pack index (MIDX). In this
* setting:
*
* - index position refers to an object's numeric position within the MIDX
*
* - pack position refers to an object's position within a non-existent pack
* described by the MIDX. The pack structure is described in
* gitformat-pack(5).
pack-revindex: read multi-pack reverse indexes Implement reading for multi-pack reverse indexes, as described in the previous patch. Note that these functions don't yet have any callers, and won't until multi-pack reachability bitmaps are introduced in a later patch series. In the meantime, this patch implements some of the infrastructure necessary to support multi-pack bitmaps. There are three new functions exposed by the revindex API: - load_midx_revindex(): loads the reverse index corresponding to the given multi-pack index. - midx_to_pack_pos() and pack_pos_to_midx(): these convert between the multi-pack index and pseudo-pack order. load_midx_revindex() and pack_pos_to_midx() are both relatively straightforward. load_midx_revindex() needs a few functions to be exposed from the midx API. One to get the checksum of a midx, and another to get the .rev's filename. Similar to recent changes in the packed_git struct, three new fields are added to the multi_pack_index struct: one to keep track of the size, one to keep track of the mmap'd pointer, and another to point past the header and at the reverse index's data. pack_pos_to_midx() simply reads the corresponding entry out of the table. midx_to_pack_pos() is the trickiest, since it needs to find an object's position in the psuedo-pack order, but that order can only be recovered in the .rev file itself. This mapping can be implemented with a binary search, but note that the thing we're binary searching over isn't an array of values, but rather a permuted order of those values. So, when comparing two items, it's helpful to keep in mind the difference. Instead of a traditional binary search, where you are comparing two things directly, here we're comparing a (pack, offset) tuple with an index into the multi-pack index. That index describes another (pack, offset) tuple, and it is _those_ two tuples that are compared. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
*
* It is effectively a concatanation of all packs in the MIDX (ordered by
* their numeric ID within the MIDX) in their original order within each
* pack), removing duplicates, and placing the preferred pack (if any)
* first.
pack-revindex: introduce a new API In the next several patches, we will prepare for loading a reverse index either in memory (mapping the inverse of the .idx's contents in-core), or directly from a yet-to-be-introduced on-disk format. To prepare for that, we'll introduce an API that avoids the caller explicitly indexing the revindex pointer in the packed_git structure. There are four ways to interact with the reverse index. Accordingly, four functions will be exported from 'pack-revindex.h' by the time that the existing API is removed. A caller may: 1. Load the pack's reverse index. This involves opening up the index, generating an array, and then sorting it. Since opening the index can fail, this function ('load_pack_revindex()') returns an int. Accordingly, it takes only a single argument: the 'struct packed_git' the caller wants to build a reverse index for. This function is well-suited for both the current and new API. Callers will have to continue to open the reverse index explicitly, but this function will eventually learn how to detect and load a reverse index from the on-disk format, if one exists. Otherwise, it will fallback to generating one in memory from scratch. 2. Convert a pack position into an offset. This operation is now called `pack_pos_to_offset()`. It takes a pack and a position, and returns the corresponding off_t. Any error simply calls BUG(), since the callers are not well-suited to handle a failure and keep going. 3. Convert a pack position into an index position. Same as above; this takes a pack and a position, and returns a uint32_t. This operation is known as `pack_pos_to_index()`. The same thinking about error conditions applies here as well. 4. Find the pack position for a given offset. This operation is now known as `offset_to_pack_pos()`. It takes a pack, an offset, and a pointer to a uint32_t where the position is written, if an object exists at that offset. Otherwise, -1 is returned to indicate failure. Unlike some of the callers that used to access '->offset' and '->nr' directly, the error checking around this call is somewhat more robust. This is important since callers should always pass an offset which points at the boundary of two objects. The API, unlike direct access, enforces that that is the case. This will become important in a subsequent patch where a caller which does not but could check the return value treats the signed `-1` from `find_revindex_position()` as an index into the 'revindex' array. Two design warts are carried over into the new API: - Asking for the index position of an out-of-bounds object will result in a BUG() (since no such object exists), but asking for the offset of the non-existent object at the end of the pack returns the total size of the pack. This makes it convenient for callers who always want to take the difference of two adjacent object's offsets (to compute the on-disk size) but don't want to worry about boundaries at the end of the pack. - offset_to_pack_pos() lazily loads the reverse index, but pack_pos_to_index() doesn't (callers of the former are well-suited to handle errors, but callers of the latter are not). Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
*/
packfile: prepare for the existence of '*.rev' files Specify the format of the on-disk reverse index 'pack-*.rev' file, as well as prepare the code for the existence of such files. The reverse index maps from pack relative positions (i.e., an index into the array of object which is sorted by their offsets within the packfile) to their position within the 'pack-*.idx' file. Today, this is done by building up a list of (off_t, uint32_t) tuples for each object (the off_t corresponding to that object's offset, and the uint32_t corresponding to its position in the index). To convert between pack and index position quickly, this array of tuples is radix sorted based on its offset. This has two major drawbacks: First, the in-memory cost scales linearly with the number of objects in a pack. Each 'struct revindex_entry' is sizeof(off_t) + sizeof(uint32_t) + padding bytes for a total of 16. To observe this, force Git to load the reverse index by, for e.g., running 'git cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)"'. When asking for a single object in a fresh clone of the kernel, Git needs to allocate 120+ MB of memory in order to hold the reverse index in memory. Second, the cost to sort also scales with the size of the pack. Luckily, this is a linear function since 'load_pack_revindex()' uses a radix sort, but this cost still must be paid once per pack per process. As an example, it takes ~60x longer to print the _size_ of an object as it does to print that entire object's _contents_: Benchmark #1: git.compile cat-file --batch <obj Time (mean ± σ): 3.4 ms ± 0.1 ms [User: 3.3 ms, System: 2.1 ms] Range (min … max): 3.2 ms … 3.7 ms 726 runs Benchmark #2: git.compile cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)" <obj Time (mean ± σ): 210.3 ms ± 8.9 ms [User: 188.2 ms, System: 23.2 ms] Range (min … max): 193.7 ms … 224.4 ms 13 runs Instead, avoid computing and sorting the revindex once per process by writing it to a file when the pack itself is generated. The format is relatively straightforward. It contains an array of uint32_t's, the length of which is equal to the number of objects in the pack. The ith entry in this table contains the index position of the ith object in the pack, where "ith object in the pack" is determined by pack offset. One thing that the on-disk format does _not_ contain is the full (up to) eight-byte offset corresponding to each object. This is something that the in-memory revindex contains (it stores an off_t in 'struct revindex_entry' along with the same uint32_t that the on-disk format has). Omit it in the on-disk format, since knowing the index position for some object is sufficient to get a constant-time lookup in the pack-*.idx file to ask for an object's offset within the pack. This trades off between the on-disk size of the 'pack-*.rev' file for runtime to chase down the offset for some object. Even though the lookup is constant time, the constant is heavier, since it can potentially involve two pointer walks in v2 indexes (one to access the 4-byte offset table, and potentially a second to access the double wide offset table). Consider trying to map an object's pack offset to a relative position within that pack. In a cold-cache scenario, more page faults occur while switching between binary searching through the reverse index and searching through the *.idx file for an object's offset. Sure enough, with a cold cache (writing '3' into '/proc/sys/vm/drop_caches' after 'sync'ing), printing out the entire object's contents is still marginally faster than printing its size: Benchmark #1: git.compile cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)" <obj >/dev/null Time (mean ± σ): 22.6 ms ± 0.5 ms [User: 2.4 ms, System: 7.9 ms] Range (min … max): 21.4 ms … 23.5 ms 41 runs Benchmark #2: git.compile cat-file --batch <obj >/dev/null Time (mean ± σ): 17.2 ms ± 0.7 ms [User: 2.8 ms, System: 5.5 ms] Range (min … max): 15.6 ms … 18.2 ms 45 runs (Numbers taken in the kernel after cheating and using the next patch to generate a reverse index). There are a couple of approaches to improve cold cache performance not pursued here: - We could include the object offsets in the reverse index format. Predictably, this does result in fewer page faults, but it triples the size of the file, while simultaneously duplicating a ton of data already available in the .idx file. (This was the original way I implemented the format, and it did show `--batch-check='%(objectsize:disk)'` winning out against `--batch`.) On the other hand, this increase in size also results in a large block-cache footprint, which could potentially hurt other workloads. - We could store the mapping from pack to index position in more cache-friendly way, like constructing a binary search tree from the table and writing the values in breadth-first order. This would result in much better locality, but the price you pay is trading O(1) lookup in 'pack_pos_to_index()' for an O(log n) one (since you can no longer directly index the table). So, neither of these approaches are taken here. (Thankfully, the format is versioned, so we are free to pursue these in the future.) But, cold cache performance likely isn't interesting outside of one-off cases like asking for the size of an object directly. In real-world usage, Git is often performing many operations in the revindex (i.e., asking about many objects rather than a single one). The trade-off is worth it, since we will avoid the vast majority of the cost of generating the revindex that the extra pointer chase will look like noise in the following patch's benchmarks. This patch describes the format and prepares callers (like in pack-revindex.c) to be able to read *.rev files once they exist. An implementation of the writer will appear in the next patch, and callers will gradually begin to start using the writer in the patches that follow after that. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
#define RIDX_SIGNATURE 0x52494458 /* "RIDX" */
#define RIDX_VERSION 1
#define GIT_TEST_WRITE_REV_INDEX "GIT_TEST_WRITE_REV_INDEX"
#define GIT_TEST_REV_INDEX_DIE_IN_MEMORY "GIT_TEST_REV_INDEX_DIE_IN_MEMORY"
struct packed_git;
pack-revindex: read multi-pack reverse indexes Implement reading for multi-pack reverse indexes, as described in the previous patch. Note that these functions don't yet have any callers, and won't until multi-pack reachability bitmaps are introduced in a later patch series. In the meantime, this patch implements some of the infrastructure necessary to support multi-pack bitmaps. There are three new functions exposed by the revindex API: - load_midx_revindex(): loads the reverse index corresponding to the given multi-pack index. - midx_to_pack_pos() and pack_pos_to_midx(): these convert between the multi-pack index and pseudo-pack order. load_midx_revindex() and pack_pos_to_midx() are both relatively straightforward. load_midx_revindex() needs a few functions to be exposed from the midx API. One to get the checksum of a midx, and another to get the .rev's filename. Similar to recent changes in the packed_git struct, three new fields are added to the multi_pack_index struct: one to keep track of the size, one to keep track of the mmap'd pointer, and another to point past the header and at the reverse index's data. pack_pos_to_midx() simply reads the corresponding entry out of the table. midx_to_pack_pos() is the trickiest, since it needs to find an object's position in the psuedo-pack order, but that order can only be recovered in the .rev file itself. This mapping can be implemented with a binary search, but note that the thing we're binary searching over isn't an array of values, but rather a permuted order of those values. So, when comparing two items, it's helpful to keep in mind the difference. Instead of a traditional binary search, where you are comparing two things directly, here we're comparing a (pack, offset) tuple with an index into the multi-pack index. That index describes another (pack, offset) tuple, and it is _those_ two tuples that are compared. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
struct multi_pack_index;
pack-revindex: introduce a new API In the next several patches, we will prepare for loading a reverse index either in memory (mapping the inverse of the .idx's contents in-core), or directly from a yet-to-be-introduced on-disk format. To prepare for that, we'll introduce an API that avoids the caller explicitly indexing the revindex pointer in the packed_git structure. There are four ways to interact with the reverse index. Accordingly, four functions will be exported from 'pack-revindex.h' by the time that the existing API is removed. A caller may: 1. Load the pack's reverse index. This involves opening up the index, generating an array, and then sorting it. Since opening the index can fail, this function ('load_pack_revindex()') returns an int. Accordingly, it takes only a single argument: the 'struct packed_git' the caller wants to build a reverse index for. This function is well-suited for both the current and new API. Callers will have to continue to open the reverse index explicitly, but this function will eventually learn how to detect and load a reverse index from the on-disk format, if one exists. Otherwise, it will fallback to generating one in memory from scratch. 2. Convert a pack position into an offset. This operation is now called `pack_pos_to_offset()`. It takes a pack and a position, and returns the corresponding off_t. Any error simply calls BUG(), since the callers are not well-suited to handle a failure and keep going. 3. Convert a pack position into an index position. Same as above; this takes a pack and a position, and returns a uint32_t. This operation is known as `pack_pos_to_index()`. The same thinking about error conditions applies here as well. 4. Find the pack position for a given offset. This operation is now known as `offset_to_pack_pos()`. It takes a pack, an offset, and a pointer to a uint32_t where the position is written, if an object exists at that offset. Otherwise, -1 is returned to indicate failure. Unlike some of the callers that used to access '->offset' and '->nr' directly, the error checking around this call is somewhat more robust. This is important since callers should always pass an offset which points at the boundary of two objects. The API, unlike direct access, enforces that that is the case. This will become important in a subsequent patch where a caller which does not but could check the return value treats the signed `-1` from `find_revindex_position()` as an index into the 'revindex' array. Two design warts are carried over into the new API: - Asking for the index position of an out-of-bounds object will result in a BUG() (since no such object exists), but asking for the offset of the non-existent object at the end of the pack returns the total size of the pack. This makes it convenient for callers who always want to take the difference of two adjacent object's offsets (to compute the on-disk size) but don't want to worry about boundaries at the end of the pack. - offset_to_pack_pos() lazily loads the reverse index, but pack_pos_to_index() doesn't (callers of the former are well-suited to handle errors, but callers of the latter are not). Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
/*
* load_pack_revindex populates the revindex's internal data-structures for the
* given pack, returning zero on success and a negative value otherwise.
packfile: prepare for the existence of '*.rev' files Specify the format of the on-disk reverse index 'pack-*.rev' file, as well as prepare the code for the existence of such files. The reverse index maps from pack relative positions (i.e., an index into the array of object which is sorted by their offsets within the packfile) to their position within the 'pack-*.idx' file. Today, this is done by building up a list of (off_t, uint32_t) tuples for each object (the off_t corresponding to that object's offset, and the uint32_t corresponding to its position in the index). To convert between pack and index position quickly, this array of tuples is radix sorted based on its offset. This has two major drawbacks: First, the in-memory cost scales linearly with the number of objects in a pack. Each 'struct revindex_entry' is sizeof(off_t) + sizeof(uint32_t) + padding bytes for a total of 16. To observe this, force Git to load the reverse index by, for e.g., running 'git cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)"'. When asking for a single object in a fresh clone of the kernel, Git needs to allocate 120+ MB of memory in order to hold the reverse index in memory. Second, the cost to sort also scales with the size of the pack. Luckily, this is a linear function since 'load_pack_revindex()' uses a radix sort, but this cost still must be paid once per pack per process. As an example, it takes ~60x longer to print the _size_ of an object as it does to print that entire object's _contents_: Benchmark #1: git.compile cat-file --batch <obj Time (mean ± σ): 3.4 ms ± 0.1 ms [User: 3.3 ms, System: 2.1 ms] Range (min … max): 3.2 ms … 3.7 ms 726 runs Benchmark #2: git.compile cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)" <obj Time (mean ± σ): 210.3 ms ± 8.9 ms [User: 188.2 ms, System: 23.2 ms] Range (min … max): 193.7 ms … 224.4 ms 13 runs Instead, avoid computing and sorting the revindex once per process by writing it to a file when the pack itself is generated. The format is relatively straightforward. It contains an array of uint32_t's, the length of which is equal to the number of objects in the pack. The ith entry in this table contains the index position of the ith object in the pack, where "ith object in the pack" is determined by pack offset. One thing that the on-disk format does _not_ contain is the full (up to) eight-byte offset corresponding to each object. This is something that the in-memory revindex contains (it stores an off_t in 'struct revindex_entry' along with the same uint32_t that the on-disk format has). Omit it in the on-disk format, since knowing the index position for some object is sufficient to get a constant-time lookup in the pack-*.idx file to ask for an object's offset within the pack. This trades off between the on-disk size of the 'pack-*.rev' file for runtime to chase down the offset for some object. Even though the lookup is constant time, the constant is heavier, since it can potentially involve two pointer walks in v2 indexes (one to access the 4-byte offset table, and potentially a second to access the double wide offset table). Consider trying to map an object's pack offset to a relative position within that pack. In a cold-cache scenario, more page faults occur while switching between binary searching through the reverse index and searching through the *.idx file for an object's offset. Sure enough, with a cold cache (writing '3' into '/proc/sys/vm/drop_caches' after 'sync'ing), printing out the entire object's contents is still marginally faster than printing its size: Benchmark #1: git.compile cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)" <obj >/dev/null Time (mean ± σ): 22.6 ms ± 0.5 ms [User: 2.4 ms, System: 7.9 ms] Range (min … max): 21.4 ms … 23.5 ms 41 runs Benchmark #2: git.compile cat-file --batch <obj >/dev/null Time (mean ± σ): 17.2 ms ± 0.7 ms [User: 2.8 ms, System: 5.5 ms] Range (min … max): 15.6 ms … 18.2 ms 45 runs (Numbers taken in the kernel after cheating and using the next patch to generate a reverse index). There are a couple of approaches to improve cold cache performance not pursued here: - We could include the object offsets in the reverse index format. Predictably, this does result in fewer page faults, but it triples the size of the file, while simultaneously duplicating a ton of data already available in the .idx file. (This was the original way I implemented the format, and it did show `--batch-check='%(objectsize:disk)'` winning out against `--batch`.) On the other hand, this increase in size also results in a large block-cache footprint, which could potentially hurt other workloads. - We could store the mapping from pack to index position in more cache-friendly way, like constructing a binary search tree from the table and writing the values in breadth-first order. This would result in much better locality, but the price you pay is trading O(1) lookup in 'pack_pos_to_index()' for an O(log n) one (since you can no longer directly index the table). So, neither of these approaches are taken here. (Thankfully, the format is versioned, so we are free to pursue these in the future.) But, cold cache performance likely isn't interesting outside of one-off cases like asking for the size of an object directly. In real-world usage, Git is often performing many operations in the revindex (i.e., asking about many objects rather than a single one). The trade-off is worth it, since we will avoid the vast majority of the cost of generating the revindex that the extra pointer chase will look like noise in the following patch's benchmarks. This patch describes the format and prepares callers (like in pack-revindex.c) to be able to read *.rev files once they exist. An implementation of the writer will appear in the next patch, and callers will gradually begin to start using the writer in the patches that follow after that. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
*
* If a '.rev' file is present it is mmap'd, and pointers are assigned into it
* (instead of using the in-memory variant).
pack-revindex: introduce a new API In the next several patches, we will prepare for loading a reverse index either in memory (mapping the inverse of the .idx's contents in-core), or directly from a yet-to-be-introduced on-disk format. To prepare for that, we'll introduce an API that avoids the caller explicitly indexing the revindex pointer in the packed_git structure. There are four ways to interact with the reverse index. Accordingly, four functions will be exported from 'pack-revindex.h' by the time that the existing API is removed. A caller may: 1. Load the pack's reverse index. This involves opening up the index, generating an array, and then sorting it. Since opening the index can fail, this function ('load_pack_revindex()') returns an int. Accordingly, it takes only a single argument: the 'struct packed_git' the caller wants to build a reverse index for. This function is well-suited for both the current and new API. Callers will have to continue to open the reverse index explicitly, but this function will eventually learn how to detect and load a reverse index from the on-disk format, if one exists. Otherwise, it will fallback to generating one in memory from scratch. 2. Convert a pack position into an offset. This operation is now called `pack_pos_to_offset()`. It takes a pack and a position, and returns the corresponding off_t. Any error simply calls BUG(), since the callers are not well-suited to handle a failure and keep going. 3. Convert a pack position into an index position. Same as above; this takes a pack and a position, and returns a uint32_t. This operation is known as `pack_pos_to_index()`. The same thinking about error conditions applies here as well. 4. Find the pack position for a given offset. This operation is now known as `offset_to_pack_pos()`. It takes a pack, an offset, and a pointer to a uint32_t where the position is written, if an object exists at that offset. Otherwise, -1 is returned to indicate failure. Unlike some of the callers that used to access '->offset' and '->nr' directly, the error checking around this call is somewhat more robust. This is important since callers should always pass an offset which points at the boundary of two objects. The API, unlike direct access, enforces that that is the case. This will become important in a subsequent patch where a caller which does not but could check the return value treats the signed `-1` from `find_revindex_position()` as an index into the 'revindex' array. Two design warts are carried over into the new API: - Asking for the index position of an out-of-bounds object will result in a BUG() (since no such object exists), but asking for the offset of the non-existent object at the end of the pack returns the total size of the pack. This makes it convenient for callers who always want to take the difference of two adjacent object's offsets (to compute the on-disk size) but don't want to worry about boundaries at the end of the pack. - offset_to_pack_pos() lazily loads the reverse index, but pack_pos_to_index() doesn't (callers of the former are well-suited to handle errors, but callers of the latter are not). Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
*/
int load_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p);
pack-revindex: read multi-pack reverse indexes Implement reading for multi-pack reverse indexes, as described in the previous patch. Note that these functions don't yet have any callers, and won't until multi-pack reachability bitmaps are introduced in a later patch series. In the meantime, this patch implements some of the infrastructure necessary to support multi-pack bitmaps. There are three new functions exposed by the revindex API: - load_midx_revindex(): loads the reverse index corresponding to the given multi-pack index. - midx_to_pack_pos() and pack_pos_to_midx(): these convert between the multi-pack index and pseudo-pack order. load_midx_revindex() and pack_pos_to_midx() are both relatively straightforward. load_midx_revindex() needs a few functions to be exposed from the midx API. One to get the checksum of a midx, and another to get the .rev's filename. Similar to recent changes in the packed_git struct, three new fields are added to the multi_pack_index struct: one to keep track of the size, one to keep track of the mmap'd pointer, and another to point past the header and at the reverse index's data. pack_pos_to_midx() simply reads the corresponding entry out of the table. midx_to_pack_pos() is the trickiest, since it needs to find an object's position in the psuedo-pack order, but that order can only be recovered in the .rev file itself. This mapping can be implemented with a binary search, but note that the thing we're binary searching over isn't an array of values, but rather a permuted order of those values. So, when comparing two items, it's helpful to keep in mind the difference. Instead of a traditional binary search, where you are comparing two things directly, here we're comparing a (pack, offset) tuple with an index into the multi-pack index. That index describes another (pack, offset) tuple, and it is _those_ two tuples that are compared. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
/*
* load_midx_revindex loads the '.rev' file corresponding to the given
* multi-pack index by mmap-ing it and assigning pointers in the
* multi_pack_index to point at it.
*
* A negative number is returned on error.
*/
int load_midx_revindex(struct multi_pack_index *m);
/*
* Frees resources associated with a multi-pack reverse index.
*
* A negative number is returned on error.
*/
int close_midx_revindex(struct multi_pack_index *m);
pack-revindex: introduce a new API In the next several patches, we will prepare for loading a reverse index either in memory (mapping the inverse of the .idx's contents in-core), or directly from a yet-to-be-introduced on-disk format. To prepare for that, we'll introduce an API that avoids the caller explicitly indexing the revindex pointer in the packed_git structure. There are four ways to interact with the reverse index. Accordingly, four functions will be exported from 'pack-revindex.h' by the time that the existing API is removed. A caller may: 1. Load the pack's reverse index. This involves opening up the index, generating an array, and then sorting it. Since opening the index can fail, this function ('load_pack_revindex()') returns an int. Accordingly, it takes only a single argument: the 'struct packed_git' the caller wants to build a reverse index for. This function is well-suited for both the current and new API. Callers will have to continue to open the reverse index explicitly, but this function will eventually learn how to detect and load a reverse index from the on-disk format, if one exists. Otherwise, it will fallback to generating one in memory from scratch. 2. Convert a pack position into an offset. This operation is now called `pack_pos_to_offset()`. It takes a pack and a position, and returns the corresponding off_t. Any error simply calls BUG(), since the callers are not well-suited to handle a failure and keep going. 3. Convert a pack position into an index position. Same as above; this takes a pack and a position, and returns a uint32_t. This operation is known as `pack_pos_to_index()`. The same thinking about error conditions applies here as well. 4. Find the pack position for a given offset. This operation is now known as `offset_to_pack_pos()`. It takes a pack, an offset, and a pointer to a uint32_t where the position is written, if an object exists at that offset. Otherwise, -1 is returned to indicate failure. Unlike some of the callers that used to access '->offset' and '->nr' directly, the error checking around this call is somewhat more robust. This is important since callers should always pass an offset which points at the boundary of two objects. The API, unlike direct access, enforces that that is the case. This will become important in a subsequent patch where a caller which does not but could check the return value treats the signed `-1` from `find_revindex_position()` as an index into the 'revindex' array. Two design warts are carried over into the new API: - Asking for the index position of an out-of-bounds object will result in a BUG() (since no such object exists), but asking for the offset of the non-existent object at the end of the pack returns the total size of the pack. This makes it convenient for callers who always want to take the difference of two adjacent object's offsets (to compute the on-disk size) but don't want to worry about boundaries at the end of the pack. - offset_to_pack_pos() lazily loads the reverse index, but pack_pos_to_index() doesn't (callers of the former are well-suited to handle errors, but callers of the latter are not). Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
/*
* offset_to_pack_pos converts an object offset to a pack position. This
* function returns zero on success, and a negative number otherwise. The
* parameter 'pos' is usable only on success.
*
* If the reverse index has not yet been loaded, this function loads it lazily,
* and returns an negative number if an error was encountered.
*
* This function runs in time O(log N) with the number of objects in the pack.
*/
int offset_to_pack_pos(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs, uint32_t *pos);
/*
* pack_pos_to_index converts the given pack-relative position 'pos' by
* returning an index-relative position.
*
* If the reverse index has not yet been loaded, or the position is out of
* bounds, this function aborts.
*
* This function runs in constant time.
*/
uint32_t pack_pos_to_index(struct packed_git *p, uint32_t pos);
/*
* pack_pos_to_offset converts the given pack-relative position 'pos' into a
* pack offset. For a pack with 'N' objects, asking for position 'N' will return
* the total size (in bytes) of the pack.
*
* If the reverse index has not yet been loaded, or the position is out of
* bounds, this function aborts.
*
packfile: prepare for the existence of '*.rev' files Specify the format of the on-disk reverse index 'pack-*.rev' file, as well as prepare the code for the existence of such files. The reverse index maps from pack relative positions (i.e., an index into the array of object which is sorted by their offsets within the packfile) to their position within the 'pack-*.idx' file. Today, this is done by building up a list of (off_t, uint32_t) tuples for each object (the off_t corresponding to that object's offset, and the uint32_t corresponding to its position in the index). To convert between pack and index position quickly, this array of tuples is radix sorted based on its offset. This has two major drawbacks: First, the in-memory cost scales linearly with the number of objects in a pack. Each 'struct revindex_entry' is sizeof(off_t) + sizeof(uint32_t) + padding bytes for a total of 16. To observe this, force Git to load the reverse index by, for e.g., running 'git cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)"'. When asking for a single object in a fresh clone of the kernel, Git needs to allocate 120+ MB of memory in order to hold the reverse index in memory. Second, the cost to sort also scales with the size of the pack. Luckily, this is a linear function since 'load_pack_revindex()' uses a radix sort, but this cost still must be paid once per pack per process. As an example, it takes ~60x longer to print the _size_ of an object as it does to print that entire object's _contents_: Benchmark #1: git.compile cat-file --batch <obj Time (mean ± σ): 3.4 ms ± 0.1 ms [User: 3.3 ms, System: 2.1 ms] Range (min … max): 3.2 ms … 3.7 ms 726 runs Benchmark #2: git.compile cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)" <obj Time (mean ± σ): 210.3 ms ± 8.9 ms [User: 188.2 ms, System: 23.2 ms] Range (min … max): 193.7 ms … 224.4 ms 13 runs Instead, avoid computing and sorting the revindex once per process by writing it to a file when the pack itself is generated. The format is relatively straightforward. It contains an array of uint32_t's, the length of which is equal to the number of objects in the pack. The ith entry in this table contains the index position of the ith object in the pack, where "ith object in the pack" is determined by pack offset. One thing that the on-disk format does _not_ contain is the full (up to) eight-byte offset corresponding to each object. This is something that the in-memory revindex contains (it stores an off_t in 'struct revindex_entry' along with the same uint32_t that the on-disk format has). Omit it in the on-disk format, since knowing the index position for some object is sufficient to get a constant-time lookup in the pack-*.idx file to ask for an object's offset within the pack. This trades off between the on-disk size of the 'pack-*.rev' file for runtime to chase down the offset for some object. Even though the lookup is constant time, the constant is heavier, since it can potentially involve two pointer walks in v2 indexes (one to access the 4-byte offset table, and potentially a second to access the double wide offset table). Consider trying to map an object's pack offset to a relative position within that pack. In a cold-cache scenario, more page faults occur while switching between binary searching through the reverse index and searching through the *.idx file for an object's offset. Sure enough, with a cold cache (writing '3' into '/proc/sys/vm/drop_caches' after 'sync'ing), printing out the entire object's contents is still marginally faster than printing its size: Benchmark #1: git.compile cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)" <obj >/dev/null Time (mean ± σ): 22.6 ms ± 0.5 ms [User: 2.4 ms, System: 7.9 ms] Range (min … max): 21.4 ms … 23.5 ms 41 runs Benchmark #2: git.compile cat-file --batch <obj >/dev/null Time (mean ± σ): 17.2 ms ± 0.7 ms [User: 2.8 ms, System: 5.5 ms] Range (min … max): 15.6 ms … 18.2 ms 45 runs (Numbers taken in the kernel after cheating and using the next patch to generate a reverse index). There are a couple of approaches to improve cold cache performance not pursued here: - We could include the object offsets in the reverse index format. Predictably, this does result in fewer page faults, but it triples the size of the file, while simultaneously duplicating a ton of data already available in the .idx file. (This was the original way I implemented the format, and it did show `--batch-check='%(objectsize:disk)'` winning out against `--batch`.) On the other hand, this increase in size also results in a large block-cache footprint, which could potentially hurt other workloads. - We could store the mapping from pack to index position in more cache-friendly way, like constructing a binary search tree from the table and writing the values in breadth-first order. This would result in much better locality, but the price you pay is trading O(1) lookup in 'pack_pos_to_index()' for an O(log n) one (since you can no longer directly index the table). So, neither of these approaches are taken here. (Thankfully, the format is versioned, so we are free to pursue these in the future.) But, cold cache performance likely isn't interesting outside of one-off cases like asking for the size of an object directly. In real-world usage, Git is often performing many operations in the revindex (i.e., asking about many objects rather than a single one). The trade-off is worth it, since we will avoid the vast majority of the cost of generating the revindex that the extra pointer chase will look like noise in the following patch's benchmarks. This patch describes the format and prepares callers (like in pack-revindex.c) to be able to read *.rev files once they exist. An implementation of the writer will appear in the next patch, and callers will gradually begin to start using the writer in the patches that follow after that. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
* This function runs in constant time under both in-memory and on-disk reverse
* indexes, but an additional step is taken to consult the corresponding .idx
* file when using the on-disk format.
pack-revindex: introduce a new API In the next several patches, we will prepare for loading a reverse index either in memory (mapping the inverse of the .idx's contents in-core), or directly from a yet-to-be-introduced on-disk format. To prepare for that, we'll introduce an API that avoids the caller explicitly indexing the revindex pointer in the packed_git structure. There are four ways to interact with the reverse index. Accordingly, four functions will be exported from 'pack-revindex.h' by the time that the existing API is removed. A caller may: 1. Load the pack's reverse index. This involves opening up the index, generating an array, and then sorting it. Since opening the index can fail, this function ('load_pack_revindex()') returns an int. Accordingly, it takes only a single argument: the 'struct packed_git' the caller wants to build a reverse index for. This function is well-suited for both the current and new API. Callers will have to continue to open the reverse index explicitly, but this function will eventually learn how to detect and load a reverse index from the on-disk format, if one exists. Otherwise, it will fallback to generating one in memory from scratch. 2. Convert a pack position into an offset. This operation is now called `pack_pos_to_offset()`. It takes a pack and a position, and returns the corresponding off_t. Any error simply calls BUG(), since the callers are not well-suited to handle a failure and keep going. 3. Convert a pack position into an index position. Same as above; this takes a pack and a position, and returns a uint32_t. This operation is known as `pack_pos_to_index()`. The same thinking about error conditions applies here as well. 4. Find the pack position for a given offset. This operation is now known as `offset_to_pack_pos()`. It takes a pack, an offset, and a pointer to a uint32_t where the position is written, if an object exists at that offset. Otherwise, -1 is returned to indicate failure. Unlike some of the callers that used to access '->offset' and '->nr' directly, the error checking around this call is somewhat more robust. This is important since callers should always pass an offset which points at the boundary of two objects. The API, unlike direct access, enforces that that is the case. This will become important in a subsequent patch where a caller which does not but could check the return value treats the signed `-1` from `find_revindex_position()` as an index into the 'revindex' array. Two design warts are carried over into the new API: - Asking for the index position of an out-of-bounds object will result in a BUG() (since no such object exists), but asking for the offset of the non-existent object at the end of the pack returns the total size of the pack. This makes it convenient for callers who always want to take the difference of two adjacent object's offsets (to compute the on-disk size) but don't want to worry about boundaries at the end of the pack. - offset_to_pack_pos() lazily loads the reverse index, but pack_pos_to_index() doesn't (callers of the former are well-suited to handle errors, but callers of the latter are not). Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
*/
off_t pack_pos_to_offset(struct packed_git *p, uint32_t pos);
pack-revindex: read multi-pack reverse indexes Implement reading for multi-pack reverse indexes, as described in the previous patch. Note that these functions don't yet have any callers, and won't until multi-pack reachability bitmaps are introduced in a later patch series. In the meantime, this patch implements some of the infrastructure necessary to support multi-pack bitmaps. There are three new functions exposed by the revindex API: - load_midx_revindex(): loads the reverse index corresponding to the given multi-pack index. - midx_to_pack_pos() and pack_pos_to_midx(): these convert between the multi-pack index and pseudo-pack order. load_midx_revindex() and pack_pos_to_midx() are both relatively straightforward. load_midx_revindex() needs a few functions to be exposed from the midx API. One to get the checksum of a midx, and another to get the .rev's filename. Similar to recent changes in the packed_git struct, three new fields are added to the multi_pack_index struct: one to keep track of the size, one to keep track of the mmap'd pointer, and another to point past the header and at the reverse index's data. pack_pos_to_midx() simply reads the corresponding entry out of the table. midx_to_pack_pos() is the trickiest, since it needs to find an object's position in the psuedo-pack order, but that order can only be recovered in the .rev file itself. This mapping can be implemented with a binary search, but note that the thing we're binary searching over isn't an array of values, but rather a permuted order of those values. So, when comparing two items, it's helpful to keep in mind the difference. Instead of a traditional binary search, where you are comparing two things directly, here we're comparing a (pack, offset) tuple with an index into the multi-pack index. That index describes another (pack, offset) tuple, and it is _those_ two tuples that are compared. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
/*
* pack_pos_to_midx converts the object at position "pos" within the MIDX
* pseudo-pack into a MIDX position.
*
* If the reverse index has not yet been loaded, or the position is out of
* bounds, this function aborts.
*
* This function runs in constant time.
pack-revindex: read multi-pack reverse indexes Implement reading for multi-pack reverse indexes, as described in the previous patch. Note that these functions don't yet have any callers, and won't until multi-pack reachability bitmaps are introduced in a later patch series. In the meantime, this patch implements some of the infrastructure necessary to support multi-pack bitmaps. There are three new functions exposed by the revindex API: - load_midx_revindex(): loads the reverse index corresponding to the given multi-pack index. - midx_to_pack_pos() and pack_pos_to_midx(): these convert between the multi-pack index and pseudo-pack order. load_midx_revindex() and pack_pos_to_midx() are both relatively straightforward. load_midx_revindex() needs a few functions to be exposed from the midx API. One to get the checksum of a midx, and another to get the .rev's filename. Similar to recent changes in the packed_git struct, three new fields are added to the multi_pack_index struct: one to keep track of the size, one to keep track of the mmap'd pointer, and another to point past the header and at the reverse index's data. pack_pos_to_midx() simply reads the corresponding entry out of the table. midx_to_pack_pos() is the trickiest, since it needs to find an object's position in the psuedo-pack order, but that order can only be recovered in the .rev file itself. This mapping can be implemented with a binary search, but note that the thing we're binary searching over isn't an array of values, but rather a permuted order of those values. So, when comparing two items, it's helpful to keep in mind the difference. Instead of a traditional binary search, where you are comparing two things directly, here we're comparing a (pack, offset) tuple with an index into the multi-pack index. That index describes another (pack, offset) tuple, and it is _those_ two tuples that are compared. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
*/
uint32_t pack_pos_to_midx(struct multi_pack_index *m, uint32_t pos);
/*
* midx_to_pack_pos converts from the MIDX-relative position at "at" to the
* corresponding pack position.
*
* If the reverse index has not yet been loaded, or the position is out of
* bounds, this function aborts.
*
* This function runs in time O(log N) with the number of objects in the MIDX.
pack-revindex: read multi-pack reverse indexes Implement reading for multi-pack reverse indexes, as described in the previous patch. Note that these functions don't yet have any callers, and won't until multi-pack reachability bitmaps are introduced in a later patch series. In the meantime, this patch implements some of the infrastructure necessary to support multi-pack bitmaps. There are three new functions exposed by the revindex API: - load_midx_revindex(): loads the reverse index corresponding to the given multi-pack index. - midx_to_pack_pos() and pack_pos_to_midx(): these convert between the multi-pack index and pseudo-pack order. load_midx_revindex() and pack_pos_to_midx() are both relatively straightforward. load_midx_revindex() needs a few functions to be exposed from the midx API. One to get the checksum of a midx, and another to get the .rev's filename. Similar to recent changes in the packed_git struct, three new fields are added to the multi_pack_index struct: one to keep track of the size, one to keep track of the mmap'd pointer, and another to point past the header and at the reverse index's data. pack_pos_to_midx() simply reads the corresponding entry out of the table. midx_to_pack_pos() is the trickiest, since it needs to find an object's position in the psuedo-pack order, but that order can only be recovered in the .rev file itself. This mapping can be implemented with a binary search, but note that the thing we're binary searching over isn't an array of values, but rather a permuted order of those values. So, when comparing two items, it's helpful to keep in mind the difference. Instead of a traditional binary search, where you are comparing two things directly, here we're comparing a (pack, offset) tuple with an index into the multi-pack index. That index describes another (pack, offset) tuple, and it is _those_ two tuples that are compared. Signed-off-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
2 years ago
*/
int midx_to_pack_pos(struct multi_pack_index *midx, uint32_t at, uint32_t *pos);
#endif