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Table of contents


Here you will find methods to assert the authenticity of the presented software packages.


The following extract is from a post by Mike Gerwitz:

Git Host

Git hosting providers are probably the most easily overlooked trustees—providers like Gitorious, GitHub, Bitbucket, SourceForge, Google Code, etc. Each provides hosting for your repository and “secures” it by allowing only you, or other authorized users, to push to it, often with the use of SSH keys tied to an account. By using a host as the primary holder of your repository—the repository from which most clone and push to—you are entrusting them with the entirety of your project; you are stating, “Yes, I trust that my source code is safe with you and will not be tampered with”. This is a dangerous assumption. Do you trust that your host properly secures your account information? Furthermore, bugs exist in all but the most trivial pieces of software, so what is to say that there is not a vulnerability just waiting to be exploited in your host’s system, completely compromising your repository?

It was not too long ago (March 4th, 2012) that a public key security vulnerability at GitHub was exploited by a Russian man named Egor Homakov, allowing him to successfully commit to the master branch of the Ruby on Rails framework repository hosted on GitHub. Oops.

Copyright © 2019 Mike Gerwitz. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Signing keys

You may contact me directly to obtain the public key fingerprint in a different way.

Key Fingerprint
[pgp_pubkey_since_2019.txt]({{ site.baseurl }}/pubkeys/pgp_pubkey_since_2019.txt) [pgp_pubkey_fingerprint_since_2019.txt]({{ site.baseurl }}/pubkeys/pgp_pubkey_fingerprint_since_2019.txt)


  • project_dir: the full path directory of the project

  • project: the project name

  • project_python_module: the python module name of the project. For example: md-toc is md_toc

  • tag: the git tag name which is usually semvered

  • tag_raw: same as tag but pad each component of the tag with 6 zeros. For example: 12.121.5 becomes 000012.000121.000005

  • signing_key: the public key file used to sign the archive file

  • has_changelog: the project has a changelog entry for a specific release. Value must be either true or false

  • is_on_pypi: the project is on PyPI. Value must be either true or false

  • project_version_release_date: the release date of a software version. This is the command to get the date:

    git log $(git tag | sort --human-numeric-sort --ignore-leading-blanks | tail --lines=1) -n 1 --date=short --format=%ad
  • changelog_slugified_header: the slugified header corresponding to a tag in a changelog file

  • url: a generic url

  • PyPI_download_page: the URL of the download page of the package on PyPI


Upload (what I have to do)

What follows are the steps I use to upload the software on this page.

Get the variables

Go into the project directory and then:

export project_dir="$(pwd)"
export project="$(basename "$(pwd)")"
export tag="$(git tag | sort --human-numeric-sort --ignore-leading-blanks | tail --lines=1)"

Create an archive

cd /tmp
git -C ${project_dir} archive --format=tar.gz --output=/tmp/${project}-${tag}.tar.gz --prefix=${project}-${tag}/ ${tag}


gpg --armor --output ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz.sig --detach-sig ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz


sha512sum ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz > ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz.SHA512SUM.txt
sha256sum ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz > ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz.SHA256SUM.txt

Python project on PyPI

make dist
cd dist
sha256sum ${project_python_module}-${tag}-py3-none-any.whl > ${project_python_module}-${tag}-py3-none-any.whl.SHA256SUM.txt
md5sum ${project_python_module}-${tag}-py3-none-any.whl > ${project_python_module}-${tag}-py3-none-any.whl.MD5SUM.txt

Update the entry

Create a new entry in the _pages/ file

- [`${tag}`]({{ site.baseurl }}/software/${project}-${tag}/release.html)

Create a new release file

Create a new file called _software/${project}-${tag}/ and add the following. If it's not a Python project you must omit software_name_python_module:

layout: software_release
enable_markdown: true
title: release
excerpt: none
software_name: ${project}
software_name_python_module: ${project_python_module}
software_version: ${tag}
software_version_raw: ${tag_raw}
release_date: ${project_version_release_date}
is_on_pypi: ${is_on_pypi}
has_changelog: ${has_changelog}
signing_public_key: ${signing_key}

Update the changelog

Add a changelog file in _software/${project}-${tag}/ Add the ### Added, ### Removed, etc... contents if applicable.

In ./_software/CHANGELOG-${project}.md:

  • update the front matter with the appropriate data:
    • updated and date must be the UTC representation of the timestamp of the git tag of the last published version
    • last_version must correspond to the git tag used for the last published version

Update the table of contents

Run this command manually or use pre-commit:

md_toc -p github -l 6

Download (what you have to do)

Run the following to download and verify the software.

Get the public key

If the public key is unknown you must import it from a trusted source:

cd /tmp
wget "${public_key_url}"
gpg --import "${public_key_file}"

Download the repository

cd /tmp
wget ${url}/${project}-${tag}.tar.gz.sig

Check the signature

wget ${url}/${project}-${tag}.tar.gz
gpg --verify ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz.sig

Run the checksums

sha512sum --check ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz.SHA512SUM.txt
sha256sum --check ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz.SHA256SUM.txt


tar -xvzf ${project}-${tag}.tar.gz

Python project on PyPI

wget ${PyPI_download_page}/${project_python_module}-${tag}-py3-none-any.whl
sha256sum --check ${project_python_module}-${tag}-py3-none-any.whl.SHA256SUM.txt
md5sum --check ${project_python_module}-${tag}-py3-none-any.whl.MD5SUM.txt